Tag: UNIX

Unix Hosting – General Review

By Alesia Arefjeva

First of all let’s see what hosting is. Hosting is a service which gives a disk space for any physical allocation of a site on a server, permanently being in the Internet. This service can also include a place for mail correspondence, various databases, and support of this server functioning. Besides, as a rule, hosting service supposes registration of domain names.

It is necessary to say that hosting is divided into paid and free, paid hosting does not have advertising and its base services are much more reliable.

Now developers have worked hard to facilitate administration of sites under UNIX, and at present there is almost no difference between platforms UNIX and Windows if we compare them in ease of handle and usage. If you know and prefer to use shell you will select UNIX. And if you only start the path and are at a stage of developing, you can easily deal with the control panel and with UNIX Web-interface.

Also, you should pay attention that experts consider UNIX more reliable. This is really a fine solution. If you have decided to create your own resource, you will certainly want it to be ideal, and the UNIX platform is reliable and simple in usage. At solving hosting problems, UNIX platform is more quick in actions.

It is worthy to add that many users choose the Windows platform only because it seems to them easier and must be not so difficult to understand.

And the most important thing in hosting is its cost, and in it it is necessary to mark that UNIX now differs very strongly from Windows as the majority of products under UNIX extends with a free license and also it is easier to achieve desirable level of reliability and understanding on UNIX. For this reason now more and more people trust their resources to the UNIX platform.

It is necessary to note that the UNIX operating system always was a reliable, flexible and widespread platform exactly for rendering of hosting services. Many banks and systems of electronic commerce have stopped their choice on this platform, as it is faster than other platforms, and it is very safe. The choice of huge companies falls on this platform too. A stable UNIX system became a unique choice for many companies, unlike Microsoft NT/2000, UNIX does not use GUI (Graphical User Interface), that is why the Unix platform has more capabilities to concentrate a major part of resources for a complete service of virtual web-servers.

UNIX as a hosting platform has a lot of advantages. Among them there is an amount of free scripts and additions, possibility to use Perl, PHP3/4 and mySQL Server.

Alesia Arefjeva is a web marketer working with a Unix hosting provider.

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Which Is Right For Me: Windows Hosting or Linux – Unix Hosting?

By Marcus Lim

We all have our preferences when it comes to operating systems some people prefer one of the many flavors of Windows, while others prefer one of the several distributions of Linux. It is all the matter of what works best for you. Another aspect that should be taken into consideration when determining which type of hosting you should use Windows or Linux/Unix, is what you intend to do on your website.

There are many differences between the two operating systems. However, when it comes to hosting there are just as many differences. Some people with Windows operating systems choose to use Linux/Unix hosting. On the other side of the coin, some people who use Linux/Unix operating systems choose to use Windows hosting. Do you find this confusing? If so, you are not alone. You may be wondering how this would work.

Well essentially, when you acquire hosting for your website, you are basically paying someone else to host your website on their computer. These computers also have operating systems. Therefore, when you choose Windows or Linux hosting, this will mean that the computer your website is run from is using that chosen operating system.

Windows Hosting

Windows is perhaps one of the most well-known and popular forms of operating systems. There are many advantages to using Windows hosting. Because millions of users have Windows and use the many Microsoft products such, using Windows hosting would allow you to easily integrate any of these products into your website. Windows hosting would also allow you to run ASP (Active Server Pages) on your website, which is placing dynamic content on your website using computer scripts.

What is great about Windows is that it boasts an easy to use interface perfect for beginners. There are usually many options such as ASP mail, Access Database, ASP.NET, and SQL Database, IIS, and PHP. Windows hosting also allows for publishing websites with FrontPage,

As with almost anything in this world, Windows hosting does have its disadvantages. One of the main disadvantages is the costs. One Microsoft server, if buying your own, will cost you a couple of thousand dollars, if you were running the software yourself. You have many choices when it comes to software such as Windows 2003, Advanced, and Windows 2000 server. However, with the competitiveness of the hosting industry, you will find the Windows hosting is extremely affordable when using a remote server.

Linux/Unix Hosting

Linux and UNIX hosting are two different types of operating system that are extremely similar to one another. In essence, the two are closely related something like cousins; therefore, they are generally combined in hosting. Now what is great about Linux/Unix is that you have the ability to integrate unmatched security into your website. There are also many other benefits of the duo that make it the choice for many people.

One such benefit is the fact that Linux/Unix is extremely compatible with PHP, which is the latest craze in programming languages. Cost is another very attractive benefit of the duo. In many cases, the operating system is free. Some distributors have begun to charge for the system, but many are still available for no costs. For little to no cost, additional software can be obtained for Linux/Unix such as BIND, Sendmail, Apache, and APF Firewall.

Security is probably the most popular benefit of using Linux/Unix hosting. The level of security offered by this duo is unmatched by Windows hosting. To add to the benefits, statistics show that this operating system offers more overall stability and control in operation as well.

With Linux/Unix hosting, you have the ability to integrate Chmod permission, Mod Rewrite, Apache Web server, as well as MySQL and PHP.

Of course, as with Windows hosting there are some disadvantages to using Linux/Unix hosting. The main disadvantage being ease of use. Unlike Windows hosting, Linux/Unix hosting does not contain an easy to use, user-friendly interface. Basically, it requires a large list of commands to use and is not recommended for the beginner. This type of hosting requires a great deal of technical knowledge and familiarity to install and control.

Which one is for you?

Well, in short, it depends on what you need. If you need intense security, PHP compatibility, have technical knowledge, and you do not need to have all the latest website features, Linux/Unix hosting may be the right choice for you.

However, if you need a website that offers ASP, an easy to use interface, and the ability to integrate Microsoft products, then Windows hosting is the best decision for you.

As you can see choosing between Windows hosting and Linux/Unix hosting, all depends on what you need on your website, your level of experience, and of course, your overall budget.

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Why Your Business May Need Unix Hosting

By Marcus Fei

f you want to dive into the world of online business, your first step will involve the choosing of a web hosting package. For starters, it can be as easy as finding the lowest possible deal and checking if other customers are happy with that particular deal. Others might be contented with free hosting to save and then upgrade later. However, website hosting is a broad topic and there are several types of web hosting plans to choose from and making that decision is very important. If you rush and accept web hosting package deal too soon, you might find yourself limited with features because you got the wrong one. One of the parts of a package that get overlooked often is the operating system that the server uses. Generally, you have the Windows and Unix operating systems as choices and going for Unix hosting has its advantages.

Unix hosting is far more stable than Windows hosting. Although the Windows operating system has evolved into a more stable base, many web hosting providers have not embraced these upgrades because Unix hosting still works on the stable side. Do not be intimidated by this type of website hosting if you do not have knowledge of Linux which is closely related to Unix. There are friendlier Linux variants including Ubuntu, Redhat, Mandrake, and FreeBSD.

Aside from the stable advantages, you will also benefit from free applications. Being an open source platform, many of the Linux applications that developers create keep them open source and if you have programming knowledge, you may be able to develop these programs even further to best fit your business website. You can start with a widely used Linux web hosting software like Apache 2 as it provides some useful tools to get you started.

Getting around the interface can be a slight disadvantage to those that are new to Unix because some knowledge on FTP clients and shells are required. You can use the Apache server to give you some relief in terms of GUI or you can let the website hosting provider assist you. Pace Work Technologies is a decent website hosting provider that has a good Unix hosting package along with excellent support.

Going back to the advantages, Unix hosting maintains its stable base because of the fact that the operating system consumes fewer resources. This leads to faster performing sites even if the specs of the server are low. Applications like website builder software will perform faster and Pace Work Technologies offers an extensive list so Unix hosting pretty much gets the Windows website hosting benefits too.

Linux is an evolving operating system and developers continue to release updates. When these updates hit the stable channels, you can update your server operating system free of charge and enjoy all of the new features that your business can take advantage of. This greatly contrasts with Windows since you have to pay a considerable amount just for an upgrade and the transition may even cause problems with your server or applications the OS depends on. You will also need to put your server in a temporary offline state prior to the upgrade if you are using Windows. Linux provides a much smoother transition.

These are just some of the reasons why Unix website hosting will benefit your site. Once you go through the minor learning curve and partner with the right host, your business will flourish faster and you won’t lose as much money.

Want to find out more about website hosting, then visit Pace Work Technologies on how to choose the best website builder for your website hosting needs.

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The Cheapest Hosting Solution is Unix Hosting

By Mike Ramidden

No matter whether you have your website hosted on a Linux web server or a Windows web server, the process of moving the files to the server for hosting is virtually the same. But there are many people who wonder what the real differences are between these two types of web servers, which are the most common choices. Both the UNIX hosting web servers and the Windows hosting web servers will be accessing the same data files, so the primary difference is in how the software handles the data in those files.

The vast majority of website hosting providers use various versions of UNIX based software, making UNIX hosting services more common across the board. These operating systems most often used on UNIX servers are Linux and FreeBSD, which are both free and without licensing fees.

As a result, the cost of a hosting operation based on UNIX servers is lower. The Windows operating system costs thousands of dollars, so some web server hosting companies charge extra for accounts on a Windows server, if they even offer both options.

The main different that is evident when these two different operation systems are compared, is in the software that can be run on the UNIX hosting versus the Windows hosting. There are some specific software applications from Microsoft, such as APS, VBScript, and MS Access that the UNIX machines are not able to run, so they must be run on a Windows platform.

If it is absolutely essential to be able to run MS Access, ASP, or a VBScript, then it will be necessary to choose Windows web servers for hosting. UNIX is able to deliver dynamic content similar to the Windows programs by utilizing other software options such as PHP, CGI and MySQL. These software technologies are also available on Windows servers.

Because of the additional cost that is required to set up and run a Windows web host, many hosting companies only offer this option with a Windows dedicated hosting service. This usually makes the additional cost of the Windows operating system more justifiable, as the hosting services charge more for managed dedicated services, whether it is UNIX or Windows hosting.

Most of the low cost hosting and free webhosting services that are available will be UNIX hosting providers. Again, this is because of the fact that the UNIX web servers can run completely free software and that savings is passed along to the customers of the hosting provider, in the way of low cost hosting and even free hosting accounts, which many companies make available for websites with small disc space needs and low traffic demand.

The primary advantages of UNIX hosting as compared to Windows hosting is that there are many more choices in web server hosting providers. In addition, according to track records there is slightly better reliability with UNIX servers, which is an important consideration when your web business resides on one of their servers.

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Why Choose Unix Hosting For Your Site?

By Kaiser Mangampo

UNIX hosting is the type of hosting which uses the UNIX, or some types of Linux, operating system. Although Windows has always been a popular choice as an operating system, UNIX has steadily gained ground, powering an increasing number of servers nowadays. In fact UNIX as an operating system has been around since the 1970s. Eventually, variations or versions of UNIX were developed, which includes Linux and several others, all differing in features, levels of security and speed. If you are quite knowledgeable in programming and coding, and you want to have the ability to control your website, hosting through UNIX is highly suggested.

If you’re quite confused on whether you should go for Windows or UNIX hosting, it will be best to enumerate on the advantages when using UNIX as an operating system for web hosting. First of all, UNIX is more affordable. You can easily get a hosting plan from UNIX which is way cheaper than Windows hosting. Many hosting companies make use of a free version of UNIX. This in itself provides excellent savings to hosting service providers, so they are able to pass on the savings to their clients. Other operating systems are expensive, often priced at thousands of dollars. Important server tools are expensive too, as well as the license upgrade required within an interval of a few years.

Another advantage in choosing UNIX hosting is that UNIX web servers are considered stable and flexible. Since UNIX as an operating system is open source, making changes on the codes is always possible. Any flaw in terms of speed or security can be corrected, as long as you have the right skills for it. This means that you will have total control of your site, once you go for the UNIX operating system and type of hosting. Many Windows operating system users will tell you that when it comes to fixing problems, it is the sole responsibility of the company to do so. The interface used by UNIX does not allow for the wastage of system resources furthermore, so even if you run more than a few programs, you will still be able to enjoy stability and security.

One disadvantage of UNIX however is that compared to Windows, it is not as user friendly. If you intend to get UNIX hosting, you will have to learn a few things first as to how this operating system really works. Nonetheless, you will be glad to learn that the support offered by the UNIX community is nothing short of impressive. There are excellent sources of information found on the web, in case you may have some inquiries regarding this type of hosting.

Although UNIX is not as popular as Windows, you will still be able to enjoy a few advantages, such as affordable and stable hosting. It is important therefore to find the right version, as well as to get the needed information regarding this operating system, in order for your online business or website to get the most out of UNIX hosting.

From Make Money Blog and Web Hosting Philippines

Kaiser Mangampo is full time webmaster in an outsourcing company based in the Philippines. A blogger @ IAMKAISER.com and the Owner of Kaiser Web Solution

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By Vipin Kumar Jain

Linux Origins

Linux is considered a new operating system. Because it is UNIX-based, however, much of the technology behind it is over 30 years old. In 1969, Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie, two software engineers at AT&T Bell Labs who had previously worked on the Multies (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) operating system, began developing a portable operating system. They called this operating system “UNIX” as a pun on Multies. (The c later mutated to an x.)

To make this operating system portable, Thompson and Ritchie had to develop a language that was not bound to a specific platform, and so the C language was born. The C source for their entire UNIX operating system could be copied and then recompiled on various platforms. Because AT&T Bell Labs made the C source code for UNIX freely available, several UNIX variants emerged: BSD (Berkley System Division) UNIX, Sun Microsystems SunOS, and AT&T’s System V. After the federal breakup of AT&T. As a result, companies that wanted to use UNIX had to formally license it.

The various vendors who began to license UNIX rights from AT&T ended up tweaking their own flavors of UNIX so that they could lock their customers into their particular variant. Despite these “UNIX wars,” as they were called, UNIX was still very successful, and most technical colleges had UNIX in their curriculum.

To circumvent UNIX licensing, Andrew Tannenbaum, the author of several highly successful books on operating systems and compilers, created his own flavor of UNIX, called MINIX, for the sole purpose of teaching UNIX to college students, Much later, the University of California at Berkley also created a UNIX derivation called Free BSD that, like MINIX, was intended to be freely modifiable and distributable. Today, however, the most well-known and successful free version of UNIX is Linux, created by Linus Torvalds.

In the early 1990s, Torvalds, then a graduate student at the University of Helsinki, became tired of the limitations of MINIX. He began to develop Linux as his own version of UNIX for the Intel platform. Through Internet newsgroups and forum, Torvalds invited other computer scientists to assist with his pet project. On October 5, 1991, the initial version of Linux, 0.02, was released. Version 1.0, the first business-quality version, was made available in March 1994.

Linux has received so much positive press that its adoption ware has exceeded that of any other UNIX variation, include IBM’s, AT&T’s and Sun Microsystems’. Interestingly, Free BSD, which is comparable to Linux in features and quality, has nowhere near the acceptance rate, mostly because of bad timing. While Linux was the darling of the press, BSD was in litigation with AT&T to determine whether BSD UNIX contained propriety Bell Labs material. By the time BSD was free from the litigation, Linux had gained the industry momentum.

Who Needs Web Hosting on Linux?

Linux is a great operating system for colleges and universities, not only because it’s free and runs on old computers that other operating system can’t handle, but because all the code for Linux comes with it. Students can research the code, make modification, reconfigure, and recompile the entire operating system. In fact, Linux enhancements and bug fixes quite often come from the computer-science departments of universities.

Linux is a good host for a desktop graphical user interface (GUI). The desktop metaphor of a GUI allows users to organize application windows on their monitors in the same way that they organize papers and books on their desks. A desktop GUI also enables the point-click capabilities of a mouse, where a picture represents an action that will occur when the user clicks on it. GUIs have improved the usability of computer applications, and today expect a GUI environment for their PCs.

Cost Effectiveness

Virtually all business requires cost justification for new directions. Although the Linux operating system is free, there are other costs to consider. First, there is the question of technical support, both internally and externally. Then, there is the question of whether or not Linux is a verifiable reliable, stable, and secure platform. If a company dedicates a thousand work-hours to the deployment of a Linux-based web site, and it fails, that’s a loss of perhaps $100,000. Even if the project were a success, would an NT or Solaris server solution have been less costly? To answer the question of server costs, companies look at three factors: hardware, software, and support.

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By Gabriel Py Ng

Test Logical security of Unix servers.

unix securityThis area covers the technical security assessment of Unix, Linux servers (commands are similar but some are different. Please check with the respective man pages).

Stage 1 scan using Nessus and check for vulnerabilities and Nmap for ports. Highlight the ports and refer to IANA for details. Print report.

Scan using Nessus (ensure latest updates are done).

Stage 2 more etc/passwd and /etc/shadow > to password.txt and shadow.txt in home directory. Check the security of these files, check IDs and /etc/group.

1. This is like the basic security measure that any server MUST take. i.e. IDs and Groups.

2. What to check. More /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow.

3. Look out for normal IDs – are all these active and belongs to users that have resigned ?

4. Lookout for system IDs – active, are they required – they may be powerful

5. Test ID, Developer IDs, Root equivalent IDs – active ? Why ?

6. Intruders often use finger or ruser to discover account names and then try simple passwords. Please let your users know that complex passwords are a must. Simple passwords just make the hacker’s job easier.

7. If intruders can get a password file, they usually move or copy it to another machine and run password guessing programs on it. These programs involve large dictionary searches and run quickly even on slow machines. Most systems that do not put any controls on the types of passwords used probably have at least one password that can be easily guessed.

8. It is a good practice to change all your passwords. For extremely critical servers, passwords should be change everytime root equivalent, developer IDs are used. If this is not practical, perhaps 3 months or 6 months interval.

9. Intruders exploit system default passwords that have not been changed since installation,including accounts with vendor-supplied default passwords. Be sure to change all default passwords when the software is installed. There are software upgrades that can change account passwords to a new default at the background. Review and change passwords after updates are done.

More /etc/passwd > /home/Gabriel/password.csv

More /etc/shadow > /home/Gabriel/shadow.csv

Stage 3 Check world writable files and directories. This is also a must. Imagine your most critical business files are accessible to everybody. Find them and take the necessary steps to control their rights.

find / -type f -perm -22 -exec ls -l > /home/Gabriel/worldfiles.csv ;

find / -type d -perm -22 -exec ls -l > /home/Gabriel/worlddirectory.csv ;

Stage 4 Search for SUID and GUID files

* SUID and GUID can allow normal users to become root equivalent when these programs are owned by Root.

* To mitigate this risk, it will be prudent that these files are not world readable as power users may find ways to run these programs. Or remove them if not necessary

* SUID and GUID are normally found in /bin, /etc, /usr/bin, /usr/ucb, /usr/etc, pay attention if they are found in other directories.

* Look for SUID files (especially SUID root files) everywhere on your system. Intruders often leave SUID copies of /bin/sh around to allow them root access at a later time. The UNIX find program can be used to search for setuid files.

Find / -user root -perm -4000 -exec ls -l > /home/Gabriel_ng/rootsuid.csv ;

Find SUID and GUID on root directory.

Find / -xdev -perm -004000 -exec ls-l {} > /home/Gabriel_ng/suid.csv ;

Find / -xdev -perm -002000 -exec ls-l {} > /home/Gabriel_ng/guid.csv ;

Stage 5 Check for network files – /etc/hosts.equiv, .rhosts, /etc/hosts.allow, hosts.deny

* Important factor in network security is controlling network access. The /etc/hosts.equiv, .rhosts and /etc/passwd control whether access is given to rlogin, rcp, and rsh. The /etc/hosts.equiv contain a list of hosts that can be trusted or considered equivalent to that machine. Some systems uses /etc/hosts.allow and /etc/hosts.deny rather than a single /etc/hosts.equiv. The .rhosts files holds a list of hosts that are permitted access to a specific user.

* Because .rhosts files allow access to the system without using a password it is recommended that users do not create them in their home directories.

Check for /etc/hosts.equiv, .rhosts , /etc/hosts.deny and /etc/hosts.allow

Find /home -name .rhosts -print

Stage 6 Check system monitoring – logs.

Check /etc/sudoers – ability for users to run commands as “root” with sudoers.

More /etc/sudoers > /home/Gabriel/sudoers.csv

Other includes /var/adm/acct, /var/adm/wtmp, var/adm/btmp, var/adm/syslog/syslog.log

Check /var/adm/sulog

1. SU 10/19 14:15 + tty q3 root-test1 – list the date and time, + indicate successful and – failure. If there is repeat failure could be indication that someone is trying to break in using su.

Stage 7 By piping all files in csv or text files, it will be easier to analyze the details and work with the relevant parties to tighten the security.

Gabriel Ng is the author of [http://www.comsectutorial.com] This site is setup to provide information, recommendation on hacking prevention, controls to minimise security threats from viruses, trojans, spywares, hacking based real life experience while conducting security assessment and penetration tests. This video touches a bit on unix security.

[http://www.comsectutorial.com/server-vulnerabilities.html] Enjoy!

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By Josh Bellendir

This tutorial will help the novice Unix/Linux user to be able to set the Path Variable. This can be useful to speed up access to software in the linux environment. Once you have a path added to your path variable, you can then simply type the executive to run the program or filename to open the file. You won’t need to specify the full path any longer.

To view what your current PATH variable is type the following at the command prompt:

# echo $PATH

This will output the PATH stored in the $PATH variable. If you simply wish to add an additional directory, simply do something like this:

# export PATH=$PATH:/the/directory/you/want/to/add

Then type echo $PATH to view the results and to make sure everything worked out. However, you should know that this is only temporarily set for the current terminal/instance you are logged into. If you want this path to always be set then you will want to edit the.bash_profile file which should be located in your home directory. Edit the.bash_profile with your favorite editor. For example:

#vi /home/myusername/.bash_profile

Find the line that states PATH=$PATH:$HOME/bin or something similar. And then just add whatever directory you want to have included in the path. For example:

PATH=$PATH:$HOME/bin:/usr/local/bin:/export/mycustomerapps

Save the file and you’re done. The next time you boot up your Linux box or create a new terminal connection, you will have your path set.

Written by Josh R Bellendir, 12/31/2010
For more articles, stories, tutorials, and reviews like these, please check out http://www.jbellendir.com.

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By Usher Jhon

Hosting forums is a big part of running a website online today and it is important to give the customers a place to voice their opinions. Providing a place for people to discuss products can provide valuable information to clients and provide information for a company on how to improve their products to match what customers are looking for. UNIX hosting is important as many developers use UNIX to make their software due to its user friendly and customizable interface. Posting bulletins online for users to read and interact with is very important to software developers and other companies because they need a place for customers to respond.

UNIX hosting provides a place for people that do not operate with Mac or Windows a place to turn when looking for online forums. There are places online that offer UNIX hosting online along with IPB hosting that can be a perfect fit for anyone. Some sites offer dedicated servers for UNIX hosting along with IPB hosting for their clients. Having dedicated servers for these things makes a big difference as servers that are used for multiple purposes slow down everything related to the server. IPB hosting is also important as it is designed to work with specific products. Any time a server is dedicated to a specific line those machines work quicker and more efficiently on those servers.

There are places to go for IPB hosting along with vBulletin hosting that offer low prices and easy access. vBulletin hosting is a big deal for many people and companies as it impacts a large audience. There are many things that go into vBulletin hosting that should be included with a service but sometimes are not. Some vBulletin hosting services include free migration of forums and free upgrades. Some sites also offer backup services at no additional charge along with management services. Finding a good IPB hosting or vBulletin hosting company can be as important as running the forums themselves.

The internet can be a very useful tool for finding the right hosting service site. Different hosting sites offer different services and some offer more services at the same prices than others do. Some sites offer only UNIX hosting and others simply IPB hosting. There are sites that offer many services as part of the included price that offer vBulletin hosting along with UNIX and IPB. A good site will have specifically dedicated servers to manage your account type and backup your forums for you. Backup is very important to keep data accessible and protect against data loss. Find the right web forum hosting site for you or your business online.

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5 Useful Unix DD Command Examples

By Erik Schweigert

dd is a common Unix program whose primary purpose is the low-level copying and conversion of raw data. You can backup whole hard drives, create a large file filled with only zeros, create and modify image files at specific points, and even do conversions to upper case.

To display dd‘s help simply enter:dd command unix linux

$dd –help

Alright, lets get to the juicy stuff.

1. Make an ISO of a your favourite CD just for backing up purposes with dd:

dd if=/dev/cdrom of=/home/erik/myCD.iso bs=2048 conv=sync

Breaking down the commands:

  • if is “input file”, so in this case our cdrom drive at /dev/cdrom
  • of is “output file”, in this case myCD.iso
  • bs is “block size”, in this case 2048 bytes per block
  • conv is for conversion, in this case we are using “sync” which tells DD to execute synchronized input and output, this is needed for the CD-ROM as we want to read a whole block to ensure no data loss occurs.

2. Duplicate one hard disk partition to another hard disk with dd:

dd if=/dev/sda1 of=/dev/sdb1 bs=4096 conv=noerror

In this case everything is the same as example 1 but our conversion methods states that noerror should be executed, this tells DD to continue after read errors.

3. Fill a file with 1MB of random bytes with dd:

erik@debian:~$dd if=/dev/urandom bs=1024 count=1000 of=fun.bin

1000+0 records in

1000+0 records out

1024000 bytes (1.0 MB) copied, 0.198349 s, 5.2 MB/s

This time I stated that our block size is 1024 bytes, and we are going to make 1000 of them sequentially. I also used the built-in kernel device urandom which provides random bytes.

4. Skip first 128K of input file then write remaining with dd:

dd if=/home/erik/fun.bin skip=128k bs=1 of=/home/erik/fun2.bin

The skip command tells DD to move passed the (in this case) 128k of data infun.bin then write the rest to fun2.bin. This can be handy if you have a large file that needs to be written across more than one partition. For instance, if you had 3 partitions each 128k. You wouldn’t want to write the same 128k to each partition, you would want to write the first 128k to partition 1, then from 128k-256k of the file to partition 2 and so on.

5. Using dd to convert a file to uppercase:

dd if=erik.txt of=erik_up.txt conv=ucase

Finally, we use conv again to do a conversion. In this case we convert with the specifier of ucase.

What is your favourite use of dd?

Erik is an avid Linux user and has experience with a wide variety of Linux/Unix based systems. In his spare time he likes writing software (C/C++/Perl/PHP/BASH/Python) and experimenting with different Linux distributions. He is starting to build a wide variety of articles Unix driven (what a surprise) that hope to inform those just getting into Linux on his website.

http://www.lainoox.com

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