Tag: recovery

How to Delete and Recover Files in Linux

By Luqmaan Ameen

Linux is a reasonably famous Operating System especially among programmers. The default file system in Linux is known to be intolerant when it comes to user mistakes, but using the method described in this post, you will be able to recover any data that you lost or accidentally deleted.

Deleting Files In Linux

Deleting a file in Linux is quite simple. You just have to right-click the file icon (which you want to delete) & then click the “Delete” option in the context menu. If you are working from the command console or terminal, the delete command is “rm” for remove. The “rm” command accepts a number of parameters which can be both unsafe and extraordinarily useful. The most famous parameter pair is “rm -rf”. This command deletes everything that’s present inside the specified folder, recursively (r). Moreover, this command does not ask you to confirm the deletion of each file. This means that you can accidentally delete the entire File system. This could be dangerous in some cases.

There is no recycle bin in Linux. So if you delete a file, It will no longer be available on your hard disk. Other operating systems however, usually have a recycle bin, which is just a folder where all the deleted files are preserved where they can be recovered or permanently deleted from there.

Recovering Files in Linux

Linux is famous for being customizable, there is a little tweak that can be made that will add the recycle bin functionality. You can simply add an alias to their.bashrc file, in a user’s home directory, that overrides the rm command. The alias is as follows:

alias rm=’mv –target-directory=$HOME/.Trash’

This alias would change the rm command into the mv, move command and send any files sent to be removed to the.Trash directory in the user’s home folder however this is not the best solution to save files from being lost as this may sometimes cause confusion with other aliases.

Another way of recovering files in linux is by using a process known as ‘File carving’. This application parses the hard disk for the leading and trailing bits of a file and then uses those bits to identify the file type and group together the deleted file on the disk. It is a reliable technique and is used by forensic data recovery.

You can use 3 main application for file carving: foremost, PhotoRec, and scalpel. From a console window, enter the application’s name, followed by the hard drive partition’s name found by using the “fdisk -l” command (ex. /dev/hda2).

Using the above two methods you should be able to recover or delete files in Linux in virtually any situation.

Luqmaan Ameen is the main writer behind Computer Realm, a blog which focuses on computer tips and several other aspects on computers and the internet in general. Cannot delete file? If so, you can find a free solution on http://www.computer-realm.net/cannot-delete-file/ on his site.

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Linux Data Recovery to Undelete Accidentally Deleted Important Linux Files
By Kuldeep Kulmii

‘Undelete’ is an option to recover and restore the lost or deleted files form the computer by rewinding the operation. Without the in-built undelete feature, the retrieval of lost or deleted files is termed as data recovery and in Linux operating system based computers, it is popularly known as Linux data recovery.

There are many file systems, which have the built-in undelete feature to reverse an accidental-delete operation of important data. However, this feature is not available with every file system. Moreover, though the undelete feature is very much useful for the ones who have deleted some important files/folders and at the very next moment, realize that the data was extremely important to be recovered back, the feature also alarms for a security risk.

Many operating systems with graphical user interface has a concept of ‘holding area’. If a file or folder has been deleted, then the information regarding these files move to the ‘holding area’ and are periodically deleted. In case of Windows and Macintosh operating systems, similar concept exists in the form of ‘Trash’. Though some of the recent Linux versions also have the undelete feature, still most of the command based operating systems, such as DOS, Linux and UNIX does not support undelete and leave the recovery of data unto recovery utilities, such as Linux recovery.

Some Linux file systems like ext2 has an in-built recovery feature called ‘e2undel’ which can undelete many recently deleted data from the ext2 file system based Linux computers. Similarly, in case of ext3 file system in Linux, though the ‘ext3grep’ utility has been designed to automate the undelete kind of operation, officially, ext3 does not support undelete. Apart from these two file systems, all the others file systems in Linux, such as ext4, reiserFS etc. does not have any undelete feature.

Hence, if you encounter any instance of data deletion in Linux, you need to opt for any data recovery Linux utility, such as ext2 recovery, ext3 recovery or ext4 recovery.

These Linux Undelete Tools are designed with powerful scanning algorithms to search your storage device extensively and recover the lost or deleted data efficiently. Moreover, these utilities are absolutely risk-free and do not harm neither the media nor the data in it.

Stellar Phoenix Linux Data Recovery is an innovative Linux recovery software to recover back any of your lost, deleted or even formatted data from any ext2, ext3, ext4 or ReiserFS file system based volume. The software is capable of recovering your valuable data from almost all instances of data loss and with rich interactive graphical user interface, is very easy-to-use even on the parts of novice users.

Kuldeep a techno geek is a technical writer doing research on different file system in linux like Ext2, Ext3. And Ext4. He is also interested in linux data recovery And Ext3 recovery. He is currently working with cool people.

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How to Perform Linux Data Recovery

By Kuldeep Kulmii

Linux is the UNIX like operating system that uses the Linux kernel of Monolithic type. The OS is being installed on a vast range of tablet computers, mobiles, video game consoles, mainframes, super computers etc. Even, statistics says that as, server OS, Linux accounts more than 50% of the whole global installations. Also,over the years, Linux operating system has gained fair amount of popularity among the common home users with the Fedora, Ubuntu and OpenSUSE distributions. Moreover, with the egression of smart phones, netbooks etc, which are running on embedded Linux, the operating system has been more closely used by many users. Though Linux has advanced technology and features, sometimes, some errors lead to data loss or inaccessibility and you need to look for any Linux data recovery software to recover back your valuable data.

In day to day usage of a Linux system, there can be enormous possibility of data loss situations, and you may not always successful in trouble shooting the system to gain access of your data. Hence, if you don’t have a valid backup available or failed to restore the data from the backup, Linux recovery is the answer to bring back your data.

Common data loss situations in Linux:

Error – Mount wrong fs type, bad option, bad super block on /dev/hdb2.

Error – Too many mounted file systems.

File system error.

Grub Error 12 – Invalid device requested.

Grub Error 17 – Can not mount selected partition.

There can be many such errors leading to the loss or inaccessibility of your Linux data. In such cases, if you are a technical person, then you can trouble shoot at the low-level. You can run the ‘fsck’ command to detect and fix such error. Prior to running the ‘fsck’ command, first, you need to go to the single user mode. Then, you have to unmount the file system partition, you are going to work upon, if it is not the root file system. If you don’t take enough care to unmount the file system, the ‘fsck warns you, such as- ‘The file system is mounted, do you want to continue anyway?’ Saying yes to the message, may result in the loss of your data, because, at times, ‘fsck’ writes directly to the disk.

If you need to check the root file system based partition, you have to boot the system in single user mode and run the ‘fsck’ with a ‘-b’ option so that it will run in a read-only mode. Also, the ‘-b’ option directly go to the ‘init’ and makes an emergency booting while skipping the other start-up scripts.

Sometimes, ‘fsck’ fails to run or exits without running at all. At that time, you need to force run the utility with ‘-f’ option. This is a case of severe corruption and you need to give additional information to ‘fsck’, such as the size of the alternate superblock or the address of the superblock to fetch the data and fix the error.

However, sometimes, these low-level recovery process is tedious as well as risky with respect to your valuable data. Hence, you can go for any Linux data recovery software, which can recover the data for you safely.

Stellar Phoenix Linux Data Recovery is a risk free Linux recovery utility to recover your lost, deleted, formatted or inaccessible data from ext2, ext4, ext3, FAT and NTFS file system based volumes. Moreover, with step-wise-instructions based GUI, the software can be easily used by any user without much technical knowledge.

Kuldeep a techno geek is a technical writer doing research on different file system in linux like Ext2, Ext3. And Ext4. He is also interested in linux data recovery, Linux Partition Recovery And Linux file recovery. He is currently working with http://www.data-recovery-linux.com

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Hard Disk Data Recovery Solutions

Hard Disk Data Recovery Solutions

By Sunil Punjabi

Data stored in a computer may be lost due to mechanical reasons like a head crash where the read-write head of the disk collides with its recording surface, a power surge, failure of the disk controller device, or due to a defective air filter. It may also be due to software-connected problems like virus problem, file corruption, problems in the operating system, or accidental erasure. In all these cases recovery and backup services are an absolute must.

Once any of these eventualities occur, access to data will be denied to the user in the normal way through the computer. In some cases data will be irretrievably lost as well. But in most cases, data is not lost. It is only access to it through the normal path that is denied and data can be retrieved through various other means. This process is known as hard disk data recovery.

One way of reducing the possibilities of disk failure and the resultant need for hard disk data recovery is using the technology of Redundant Array of Independent Disks, which is better known by its acronym RAID. In this process data is replicated and stored in different hard drives. The computer senses these small hard drives as a single storage unit. The arrangement provides more storage space and speeds up the computer, and gives the machine more fault tolerance.

The use of RAID is no foolproof solution for data loss. The advantage of RAID from a data recovery and backup services requirement perspective is that the data will be pretty much intact even if one of the drives fails. However, more than one hard disk from the group may fail and in such cases the process of hard disk recovery will become a must.

The word RAID was originally expanded as Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks though later the word inexpensive was changed into independent. There are different RAID levels and some of the levels use striping, which is an interleaving process whereby multiple disks are reading and writing at the same time. This arrangement makes hard disk data recovery process from a RAID group a little more complicated than that from a single large disk. Data is retrieved in almost all cases even though RAID data recovery may turn out to be more expensive for the customer.

Where disk damage is limited, connecting the damaged disk to another hard disk as a slave can retrieve data. There is also data recovery software used by data recovery and backup services providers, which is highly effective in most cases of data recovery. There are slight differences in the recovery software used for different operating systems like Linux, Windows, UNIX, etc. Some of these software are available online.

When hard disk failure is due to mechanical reasons like a head crash,recovery using software may not always be possible. The damaged parts of the drive will have to be replaced in such instances and data will have to be retrieved from the reconstructed drive. This is a slightly complicated procedure but many recovery and backup services provide the necessary help, thereby saving most of the data.

PCSoft is a Sydney based hard disk data recovery expert. Providing computer repairs, maintenance and computer support same day onsite support anywhere in Sydney. We can send a computer technician to your home or office for onsite assistance and data recovery and backup services today.

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Linux and Unix Data Recovery

By Nahar Dijla

Forty years ago there was only one type of computer system. Today, the variety of computer systems has grown into its own world of complexities. Technological advances have been extraordinary in the hardware side of the industry. Yet while we marvel at ever-faster storage devices and greater processing power, it’s good to remind ourselves that we also need amazing new operating systems and file systems to manage the hardware and data.

True, there are many machines using Microsoft file systems, but it is a widely accepted fact that UNIX file systems survived stronger and much longer. UNIX operating systems have definitely established itself as a stable environment for most companies. In fact, most of the servers that are part of the infrastructure of the Internet are running a variant of the UNIX operating system. Recently, Linux has proved to be a stable alternative for companies running database servers or other business applications.

The Linux operating system placed great emphasis and focus towards the server environment, and increasingly the environment that is crucial to every professional, namely the desktop environment. Linux remained constant and been true to its UNIX roots. No wonder, it continues to grow by virtue of its ‘Open-Source’ status. The good thing about being Open-Source is that no single company gets to control the operating system. Some of the smartest minds in computer science established and devoted their careers to developing the operating system and file systems for the UNIX and Linux platforms.

Before the Seventies, the custom designed operating system was meant for for the hardware of the machine. The UNIX operating system had been designed in the late Sixties and was implemented in the early Seventies.

The amazing thing about UNIX was that it allowed hardware companies to concentrate design efforts on hardware without having to design a custom operating system to go with it. When UNIX started out, it wasn’t even marketed as a new operating system yet UNIX emerged further as an operating system and a strong alternative to mainframes.

With great focus on the file system point of view, UNIX brought a number of improvements to the design of file systems.

Most professionals for data recovery focus on the evaluation and recovery of one of these types of file systems. The stages of recovery are partition and volume verification, logical file system scan, error investigation, and repair, and volume reports.

However, there are situations where the quality of the recovery cannot be verified. One of these situations is when a file system repair utility has made permanent changes to the file system. When the tools of professionals fail to undo these changes because specific data has been changed, it is a difficult situation. Most of the UNIX file system variants also permanently remove inode entries when data is deleted.

Situations where files have been overwritten present the same problem; specific information that points to the data has been overwritten. All is not lost in circumstances like this. There are professional data recover engineers who have tools that will bypass the file system and look for specific file types – sometimes known as the magic number or unique identifier of a file. In these cases, the file names may be unrecoverable, however the file data may be readable.

No doubt, data recovery is a science-a great, emerging discipline that requires the best of trained experts. By opting for a company that claims to specialize in data recovery yet uses off-the-shelf recovery tools doesn’t guarantee efficient data recovery success.

You must opt for a company or a professional that researches and studies these file systems and then designs a suite of tools to facilitate Linux and Unix data recovery. Remember, automated tools provided by several data recovery companies don’t provide a good answer to complete the data recovery process/ This requires the professional services of experienced data recovery engineers who work till data is recovered. So remember to opt for the best solution providers so that quality is never compromised.

Data Recovery
RAID Data Recovery

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A Windows XP laptop that fell victim to a Blue Screen of Death was saved with some help from Linux.

From PCWorld: Failing Hard Drive: Linux to the Rescue

Guys, do yourselves a favor and read this short piece about how Linux plays a vital role in system recovery.

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