Tag: linux

By Josh Bellendir

This tutorial will help the novice Unix/Linux user to be able to set the Path Variable. This can be useful to speed up access to software in the linux environment. Once you have a path added to your path variable, you can then simply type the executive to run the program or filename to open the file. You won’t need to specify the full path any longer.

To view what your current PATH variable is type the following at the command prompt:

# echo $PATH

This will output the PATH stored in the $PATH variable. If you simply wish to add an additional directory, simply do something like this:

# export PATH=$PATH:/the/directory/you/want/to/add

Then type echo $PATH to view the results and to make sure everything worked out. However, you should know that this is only temporarily set for the current terminal/instance you are logged into. If you want this path to always be set then you will want to edit the.bash_profile file which should be located in your home directory. Edit the.bash_profile with your favorite editor. For example:

#vi /home/myusername/.bash_profile

Find the line that states PATH=$PATH:$HOME/bin or something similar. And then just add whatever directory you want to have included in the path. For example:


Save the file and you’re done. The next time you boot up your Linux box or create a new terminal connection, you will have your path set.

Written by Josh R Bellendir, 12/31/2010
For more articles, stories, tutorials, and reviews like these, please check out http://www.jbellendir.com.

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Serious computer users who care about how their computer operates know that Linux has advantages that Windows simply doesn’t. Here you’ll find a list of those benefits:

  1. Windows vs LinuxLinux is free
  2. Linux is Open Source
  3. Live CDs are available for the popular distros that allow you to try it out without affecting your computer
  4. Live CDs come with all your hardware drivers automatically, they don’t have to be searched for online
  5. Linux is there to come to the rescue when Windows breaks
  6. Linux has thousands of developers around the world that work 24/7 to keep it secure
  7. Filesystems used by Linux are superior to Windows filesystems – no more endless “defragging”
  8. Ancient computer systems can be brought back to life with a modern operating system- Linux
  9. Since Linux is inherently Free, many software developers writing programs for it won’t expect you to pay for it
  10. There are many ways to customize the most common distros that leave the freedom in your hands, not some huge corporation
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Learn How To Install Software In Linux and Unix Distros

By Eddison Sherry

many Linux distrosFor a Linux enthusiast there are a variety of distributions (distros) or otherwise called flavors available in the internet. These distros vary mostly in the package management system they use to install software and also in their philosophy. Although the basis is same, it is the differences in handling the power that the kernel (Core program of the operating system) delivers that makes them distinct from each other. A newbie can easily get confused with the concepts in Linux, thanks to Microsoft which serves as an introductory course to using a computer the way you want it. In this article we will check what all options are catered for a normal user in installing software.

Red Hat LinuxMainly the distros can be categorized on the basis of package management system into three viz, .rpm based (redhat package manager), .deb based and the source based. The first category.rpm has its basis on Red Hat operating system or extensive usage of their code. openSUSE, fedora, Mandriva are a few to mention in this class.

Debian Linux

The next class is.deb or Debian based distros. Multitude of distros are available in this too most prominent one being Ubuntu.


ThGentoo Linuxe third category uses the source code for its primary operations Gentoo linux being one among them. Many distros provide additional front end programs to make it easier for the user to add or remove libraries or software’s to the system which may be either GUI based or command based.

yum package managerNow we will have a look at a few conceptually best package managers used by the distros. Red Hat has Yum (Yellowdog Updater Modified) package manager for the convenience of the user. It was originally developed to manage Red Hat Linux systems at Duke University’s Physics department.

Synaptic Package ManagerUbuntu has the synaptic package manager which uses the underlying apt(Advanced Packaging Tool) to gather and install software. Gentoo uses portage as its software installer but is a bit different in behavior from other package managers in that it deals with source code and compiles and installs for the specific machine on which it is running. These package managers install software from any recorded media like CD or DVD or from internet servers called repositories maintained by distributions and communities associated with its development. All these software managers resolve dependencies between packages while installing a software or library. Dependencies arise when a software might be compatible with a particular implementation of a library file where as another software we are trying to install might need a different underlying implementation of the same concept. When the two such conflicting software’s needs to coexist then the library file preferences need to be sorted out. Software’s usually depend on many libraries and hence the automatic management of dependencies is a welcome move as far as the huge Linux users community across the globe is considered as it would alleviate the problems in managing the system.

There is ample scope if you are a nerd or a geek to have your own way of tweaking the system and this is what fancies the computer addicts to use this powerful operating system. To conclude let us assume that the competition in the field gives rise to wonderful Linux based operating systems easily manageable and gives a new dimension to computing capabilities of the new generation.

Eddison Sherry had been working in Linux and other Unix flavours for long years. He had been writing blogs and article on the Linux Storage, Linux Commands and Linux Server Administration. If you are working on Linux or Unix Server its best to have a look on his blogs at Linux Technical Forum.

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By Raghu Bharadwaj

I would like to introduce you to a chronology of events that happened in the early 80′s and 90′s.

Richard Stallman, founder of the GNU project

Richard Stallman, founder of the GNU project

For Richard Stallman things started to look bad with the collapse of the free community at the Artificial Intelligence lab at MIT in the early 80′s, with modern era operating systems, none of them free software, were coming with a nondisclosure agreement which said, you are not allowed to share or change the software and if you want to get something changed, ask us to do it for you.

This sounded anti-social to the software-sharing community that had existed for many years at the MIT, who enjoyed and agreed sharing their programs with universities and companies. And to see or to change the source code of an unfamiliar program to create a new one was quite common.

After losing his community, Stallman always had the choice of joining the proprietary software world, writing code under nondisclosure agreements, which he believed divided the software society and a means for not helping a fellow hacker (“Someone who loves to program and enjoys being clever about it”) or quitting the computer field, which was rather an unpleasant thing to do as it would have wasted his skills as an operating system developer. Other way round was to build the community back by writing free programs again.

GNU Project

GNU logo

Now the idea was pretty clear, what was needed first is an operating system. With a free operating system, a community of cooperating hackers would be able to use a computer without starting to deprive his or her friend. He chose to make the system compatible with UNIX so that it would be portable, and UNIX users could easily switch to it. The name GNU was chosen for the project following a hacker tradition, as a recursive acronym for “GNU’s Not Unix”.

The GNU project started with an objective to create a “free software” society, here the term “free” is often misunderstood and it has nothing to do with price. It is about freedom. It is defined as:

»You have the freedom to run the program, for any purpose.

»You have the freedom to modify the program to suit your needs. (To make this freedom effective in practice, you must have access to the source code, since making changes in a program without having the source code is exceedingly difficult.)

»You have the freedom to redistribute copies, either gratis or for a fee.

»You have the freedom to distribute modified versions of the program, so that the community can benefit from your improvements.

After quitting his job at MIT in 1984 Stallman began writing the GNU software. First he began by writing a compiler from scratch, which is now popularly known as GCC and the GNU Emacs editor for writing and editing his programs.

Free Software Foundation

Free Software Foundation logo

As users of Emacs were growing, more people were getting involved in the GNU project, and this forced Stallman to look for some funding. So in 1985 the Free Software Foundation (FSF) was created, a tax-exempt charity for free software development. Since then Free Software Foundation employees have written and maintained a number of GNU software packages, two notable ones are the C library and the shell.

Gradually more and more programs were added to the GNU system and most of them gained popularity as they could run on the Unix systems, and users began extending them and porting them to the various incompatible versions of Unix, and sometimes to other systems as well.

By 1990 the GNU system was almost complete, with a major missing link, the kernel, which actually does the job of managing the system resources. The decision was to implement the kernel as a collection of server processes running on top of Mach, a microkernel developed at Carnegie Mellon University and then at the University of Utah. This kernel named the GNU HURD (or “herd of gnus”) could run on top of Mach, and do the various jobs of the UNIX kernel.

GNU/Linux System

In 1991, a student from Finland named Linus Torvalds developed a Unix-compatible kernel and called it Linux. And around1992, combining Linux with the not-quite-complete GNU system resulted in a complete free operating system, the GNU/Linux system. It is due to Linux that a version of the GNU system could be run today.

GPL (GNU General Public License)

GNU Public License logo

All the software under the GNU project were distributed under the GPL, which says that you can copy and distribute exact copies of the program’s source code as you have received it. You can make changes or modify the program and again redistribute under the first mentioned condition, with clear notices of your changes and date of that change.

Linux Distributions

linux distributions

Many Linux distributions based on the GNU/Linux system are currently available both as free copies and commercial distributions. Most of these distributors add up their own features, targeting specific areas like Enterprise, Desktop, Multimedia etc., to the existing GNU system, to cater diverse user sections. Some noted ones are RedHat, Fedora (an open project by RedHat), Debian, Suse from Novell, Mandriva, Ubuntu, Sabayon, PCLinuxOS, SimplyMEPIS, Knoppix, Gentoo etc. All these distributions intend to target different set of users. So you, now have the options of choosing the distribution based on your intended use, like suse, ubuntu, PCLinuxOS for user friendliness, debian, fedora for development, RedHat for Enterprise and so on. Least to say programming would be delightful on all of them.

Where do I get Linux?

Most of the Linux distributions are freely available for download from the Internet;

Fedora from download.fedora.redhat.com

Suse from novell.com

Debian from debian.org

There are also other links from where you can pull down these distributions. And if you do not want to waste time downloading, buy them from people like OSDisc.com, LinuxCD.org etc., but I am sure you would definitely find one, among your colleagues.

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Linux Training and Red Hat Certification

By John Kol Marsh

In today’s competitive IT world, knowledge of Linux can help shape the future of a person. Apart from knowledge in languages such as Java, C++,.net, PHP, knowledge of Linux can help in securing a very good career. Linux was created by Linus Torvalds. The source code of Linux which is called the Kernel is available for free on the internet. Anyone can download and develop it in a unique way. Many companies have already released their own versions of Linux. This makes it a very unique operating system. Every version of Linux is different from the other in one way or the other.

Linux is one of the preferred operating systems for corporate houses.

· One of the greatest advantages of using it is because it’s swift in multitasking. It is very stable in terms of crashing and rebooting. Many other operating systems have to be rebooted from time to time to run efficiently.

· As it is a free-operating system, the bugs are fixed within a very short span of time. If a bug is reported, many people will offer solution to the problem like a community based approach.

· It is secured operating system because of the fact that it is virus-free. This is because it does not recognize or run the virus or worms.

This makes it a perfect operating system for corporate and databases.

Linux training can help in gaining sufficient knowledge about Linux. It is different from the most popular operating system like Microsoft Windows. There are many variations in Linux and one of the most popular versions is Red Hat Linux.

In order that a person needs to fully understand and operate a Linux based system, he or she needs to have required knowledge and training. Red Hat Certification or RHCE Certification is the certificate which is given to those expert users who get through the Red Hat Training and Examinations. Red Hat Training includes Red Hat Essentials, System Administration, Security & Networking Administration, Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization.

Now the question of which professional institute to choose arises. There are plenty of institutes that provide Red Hat Linux. But, one of the best Corporate Linux Training provider is Zonix Systems. Zonix systems has scaled up to the position of a leading Linux Corporate Training providers within a short span of time. The reasons are the course curriculum that they follow and the Team Members. The Team members include some of the best names in the Information Technology industry.

Zonix Systems has teamed up with Red Hat to provide training and Red Hat Certifications. Zonix Systems also provides case study analysis which is a very practical approach in learning the subject.

Zonix Systems is not just a training institute, but it is also provides Linux Support/ Consulting Services and Linux Based Mail Server as well. These Linux Support/ Consulting Services and Linux Based Mail Server services are much needed by Corporate Companies which need advice on implementing and enhancing their operating systems. This Linux training center is located in Noida, and Delhi, India.
Buy the Red Hat Linux Certification Study Guide today!

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Linux: The Textbook

This book assumes that the reader has no background in Linux. It tours the Linux applications interface, guiding the student through operating system utilities including process, file, storage, and I/O management.

Using this approach, readers quickly learn to navigate the applications interface while broadening their understanding of operating system principles. This singular organization combined with additional coverage of Linux software development tools and a quick-reference command appendix benefits the novice programmer as well as the skilled Linux user in need of a solid reference.

This book is written in short, well-organized chapters that make the reader focus on a small set of related topics. Its in-depth coverage carefully blends important Linux concepts, like inter-process communication and I/O redirection, with shell commands to enhance understanding of both. The presentation features an integrated textual and graphical presentation of commands and concepts to enhance understanding of difficult concepts. This book is designed for novice programmers without a background in Linux and for the skilled Linux user in need of a solid reference.

Buy Linux: The Textbook today!

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Linux Flash Drive

By Betty Rims

A Linux Flash Drive is an external hardware bootable device which can be used to install Linux OS into the host controller which is generally a PC. Linux is a multi-tasking operating system which is considered to be far more sophisticated & secured than any other operating system available in the market. It can be loaded into a USB drive in order to explore its advanced features. All you need is a bootable USB drive to pack the Linux OS and then install it in your computer to be used for multi-tasking, maintenances & other data recovering purposes. You can also load only the required kernel embedded operations into the flash drive and install it across a network.

It is impossible to modify & recover the data from a live CD which has been permanently written. But by using Linux Flash Drive, this impossible task is made possible like modifying permanently written files and recovering the data as well. So, it increases the flexibility & becomes easier for the Linux users to have their required applications, configuration etc. to get stored & securely saved in a live USB as an extended storage device.

There are two major different ways to run Linux in an USB flash drive. The first is to use Linux flash disk and the second is to use a drive as a full Linux install. The first method is considered to be the better way & is widely used by the users. In order to get executed all the operations, a Linux flash drive has to maintain a minimum requirement of 1 GB flash USB such as the latest Linux based OSs: Ubuntu, Fedora need 1 GB of free storage so that it can be run and made changes in a live USB.

The following are the advantages and disadvantages for Linux Flash Drive:


It is portable & flexible as you can get all your required applications, files with you wherever & whenever you move as it is host independent as well as cross platform.

Almost all the computer systems in the World can maintain booting right from a live USB flash drive no matter it is a desktop, server or any small computer system. All you need is to hook up your Linux flash drive into your host controller and start enjoying its high end advanced features.

A Linux flash drives maintains security with hardware authentications and it also supports to share a single system among multiple users.

For the users who perform data back-ups regularly, Linux flash drive can back up your important files easily & securely. It can save you from accidental file damage without painful efforts.

It offers faster data copying than any optical devices and you can transfer your important data between remote computers without FTP utilities.


A Linux live USB can support a limited number of storage space & written data which is comparatively much lower than local hard drives.

It is typically not a good idea to store an operating system temporally in a flash drive rather than storing the system files in the main RAM of your computer.

Linux flash drive is generally for advanced users & experts as it is a little harder to install and more difficult to handle than other operating systems like Windows, Macs etc. So, it is not suited for common users.

Linux is a free and open source operating system. So most of the time Linux flash drives are illegally pirated.

As the device is small, most of the time it is reported to be misplaced and stolen. Therefore, reliability is comparatively lower and sensitive OS files are not recommended to store.

Betty is a contributor to http://www.lok-it.net and has been a fantastic author providing great articles for the last 5 years.

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Linux Backup Software – Choosing Among the Best

By Jes B

Today, Linux is one of the well known operating systems that are widely used by a lot of people. Its backup software is also the best seller among all their products. In using this product, you need to be technically knowledgeable especially in Unix. When you buy Linux backup software, there is a warning that you need a background on Unix which is an important thing to consider. If you are not that proficient in this area, select a package that is not the technical. You can find one that works well with windows. If you are confused with the terms, it is good to consult a computer specialist when it comes to this matter.

You can also find Linux backup software in the internet. This could be downloaded for free. However its features are limited. In case, you don’t know, it is a good idea to do some research before searching for Linux backup software. In this way, you would know certain features of the program that is right for your computer system. Comparing different applications would help you in selecting the right software. There are a lot of benefits of having this program installed in your computer. There is no need for USB sticks that are vulnerable to virus.

It is inevitable that computer can crash anytime and because of this having Linux backup software installed can give you a peace of mind. If you look into the market, there is a wide variety of choices that you can choose from. Here are a number of things to watch out for.

User friendly

There are different kinds of back up software available in the market today. Make sure that you go for the one that is user friendly. You need to choose the one that is not hard to figure out. It means that you don’t have to be a computer genius when you try to install and use it. This software should be basic enough like trying to put files in folders. It needs to be saved automatically. Make sure that you can back up different files ranging from documents, video, music and photos.

Cost effective

The price of the software can vary based on the dealer. It is a good idea if you can find the cheapest on with large memory. There are also different plans that you can choose from. You can pay monthly or yearly. Remember that there are some that are unlimited plans that you can choose from.


Make sure that you check on security of the software. This can help you in preventing hackers from opening the program. With Linux, you can be sure of the security of the software.

Tech support

In case there is something that goes wrong with the program, make sure that there is always a customer service that could assist you anytime that you need it. Check if there is both email and phone support. It is nice to know that there is always someone to answer your questions.

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Ubuntu Linux – The Best Operating System For Your Computer

By Eve Wilson

Are you looking for a good alternative for your Windows operating system? If yes, you can consider Ubuntu Linux. Based on the Debian GNU/Linux distribution this operating system is distributed as free. This means you don’t need to pay hefty amount for buying this operating system like that of Windows OS. There are plenty of stunning features of Ubuntu Linux that make it one of the best operating systems available in the present days.

Ubuntu Linux is not only much secure than Windows OS, but it also includes free apps and renders safe and fast web browsing. This operating system is super-fast and great-looking. Whether you have a netbook, desktop or laptop, you can easily install this OS. Ubuntu Linux is also ideal for servers. If you want the very best technologies straight to your desktop, Ubuntu Linux is the pick for you. Would you like to install this operating system on your computer? You can consult a computer repair company for Linux Setup.

Working on Ubuntu Linux is a very pleasing experience. Since the operating system includes plenty of stunning features, you can get your job done without paying for third party software. You can seamlessly create professional documents and presentations with OpenOffice.org that comes with this OS. This software is fully compatible with Microsoft Office. This software is very easy to use and you can create professional documents, spreadsheets and presentations.

When it comes to picking any software, the Ubuntu Software Centre is right there to meet your requirements. It allows you instant access to thousands of open-source and carefully selected free applications. You can explore the software categories like, sound and video, graphics, education, games, programming and office and pick the one according to your need. According to The Guardian, “In terms of software Ubuntu is like the iPhone. Almost anything you’d care to do, there’s an app for that.”

You can enjoy social networking very easily with this operating system. There is a new Me Menu which allows you to access your Facebook and Twitter accounts right from the desktop. Here you get the opportunity to connect to all your favorite chat channels and make updates. And the most interesting thing is that you get all these through a single window.

Ubuntu Linux integrates software like Pitivi video editor, and Movie Player which allows you to watch all your favorite contents from YouTube, iPlayer, and MSN Player. Not only watching, you can also edit your videos with Pitivi video editor. There are also plenty of apps that allow the user to fix and share their photos with the world.

Apart from the above mentioned features, there are many more. Considering all these, it could easily be said that Ubuntu Linux is the best operating system for your computer.

Computer repair Houston has Ubuntu Certified Professionals who offer you computer services for installing, uninstalling and reinstalling Ubuntu Linux on your computer. Pick any of their computer repair plan and enjoy hassle-free computing.

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Why Linux Is Better Than Windows OS
By Eve Wilson

Are you tired with your Windows operating system? Is the OS infected by viruses and there are security issues as well? Well, you are not alone; there are many Windows users who are not satisfied with this operating system. Microsoft Windows might be the most popular operating system in the market but there are a number of flaws. On the other hand, Linux, a less popular system, is much better in terms offering hassle-free computing experience. To get Windows OS you need to pay a hefty amount while Linux is absolutely free. In this article you will find why Linux is a better choice than Microsoft Windows.

More of the complaints we get regarding Windows PC is about virus infection. You cannot use a Windows machine without antivirus or anti-malware. Even after having these programs installed there is still the risk of getting infected. Sometimes, viruses and malware even get past the best solutions. On the other hand, with Linux, you don’t need to worry at all about this. Your PC will hardly get infected with viruses with this operating system.

Windows PC users also experience mysterious slowdowns. The reason behind this shut down could be diverse. It might be due to viruses, malware, fragmentation, or any other operating system issues. You will never experience these types of abnormal behavior from on a Linux computer. Not only the operating system but also you will hardly face mysterious application crashes with Linux.

Troubleshooting on Linux computer is very easy as you can go through the /var/log to find out what is ailing your PC. If you are not well familiar with the command line, you can install a GUI. This will allow you to scan through the log files and check for the issues and fix it. You can also run a backtrace to get all of the debugging information for the applications that you are facing problem with. Then you can fix the issues on your own or contact an Operating system support provider for Linux support.

Another most important thing is resource. To run a Windows 7 desktop your computer must have minimum 1 GB of RAM. Anything less than that makes your computer appear like it is working on slow motion. With Linux system you will never face this type of problem. Linux requires very less amount of hardware resources. This OS make the use of RAM to cache files until the cached files goes above the amount of RAM available on the computer. On the other hand, Windows 7 OS uses memory for cache only for the cases if there is no other demand for said memory.

These are some notable features of Linux operating system which make them stand at much better position than Windows OS in terms of safe and secure computing.

Computer Repair San Diego has different online tech support plans for the PC users. By choosing any of these plans PC users can fix all types of computer problems instantly.

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