Tag: linux

48x96-mint-xp-logosToday’s tip is once again using Disk Usage Analyzer that comes with Linux Mint and it is giving Windows XP another helping hand. You may recall a while back we Used Linux to check our Windows disk usage and found it to be quite useful.

I have XP installed on one hard drive in the computer, and I have Linux Mint 13 XFCE installed on a separate hard drive and I use Grub Super Boot Disk installed on CD when I need to boot into Mint.

Since the hard drive that has XP on it is a measly 80GB I loaded up the Disk Usage Analyzer in Mint to try to find any storage space hogs that I could eliminate.

restore-point-analyzer

As you can see in this screenshot, the System Volume Information folder used almost 10% of the entire hard drive! This simply cannot stand, I don’t care how official that folder name sounds. So, upon looking at it it was not too tough to realize those are restore points that Windows uses. I am quite well-versed in computers and I don’t think I’ve ever resorted to “rolling back” Windows to a usable state. Anyway I proceeded to investigate further and sure enough I found that Windows was set by default mind you to a max 12% hard drive cap almost 10 gigabytes!! as the image later below shows.

First, I clicked on the Start button, right-clicked on My Computer, chose Properties and got the System Properties box:

system-properties-box

Next, I clicked on the System Restore tab, and that’s what I saw that I had expected, extreme hard drive usage for something that 99.99% of the time I wouldn’t even consider having to use:

system-properties-system-restore-max

All right, that’s been confirmed. “Now how do I fix it?” you ask– Well, one way to fix it is to turn off System Restore, but honestly I’m a chicken and as much as I disparage Windows it might use that as reason to get back at me…I digress. So, I slid the slider bar down to 1%, a much more easy to swallow ~1GB of disk space.

system-properties-system-restore-min

Still a lot, but I can live much better with that. After you click OK, it will take a few seconds to adjust the space on the disk then you are done.

Where does that leave us? Now, we are going to go back to Linux Mint and check the Disk Usage Analyzer to see how much better it’s looking:

restore-point-analyzer-fixed

Much better now, we have gone from almost 20% of the entire used space on the hard drive and more than 7 gigabytes  to just 2.1% and just over 600 megabytes used.

This would not have been something I would have readily spotted without using my Linux tools to show me. This is also one more reason why someone that would ordinarily have no need for an OS besides Windows should have at least one Linux Live CD in his arsenal.

© 2012 Linux.Bihlman.com

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In this tutorial we will show how easy it is to enable Adobe Flash player to your Linux Mint 12 Live CD. As usual, please click each screenshot for a larger view.

Linux Mint 12 Live CD -no flash

Linux Mint 12 Live CD -no flash

First step is to boot up your Live Disc and open Firefox. This screenshot shows what will happen by default if you try to view content that relies on Adobe Flash to display.

 

 

 

 

 

Type mint-flashplugin-11 into Software Manager

Type mint-flashplugin-11 into Software Manager

Well, obviously that is going to severely limit the functionality of your Live CD, so the next step is install Flash the easiest way I’ve found. Click on Menu and choose the Software Manager (the yellow star). In the search box, type mint-flashplugin-11  then click on it in the list.

 

 

 

 

Click Install

Click Install

Once you’ve clicked on the mint-flashplugin-11 that appears in the list, you’ll see the next window that will have the Install button. Click Install and the Flash player will install to the Live CD environment.

 

 

 

 

 

Now, once it’s installed, close the Software Manager and reload Firefox. Voila! Your Youtube page you were trying to watch earlier is now working!

Linux Mint running Firefox with Flash installed

Linux Mint running Firefox with Flash installed

That’s really all there is to it. If you follow these steps you will find installing Flash much easier than trying to click the “Missing Plugins” button that first appears.

©2012 Linux.Bihlman.com

post written using Firefox on the Linux Mint 12 Live CD!

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default linux mint 12 Menu

default linux mint 12 Menu

So, you downloaded Linux Mint 12 and are excited to try out all the fancy stuff that people have been saying about it. You have your Live CD burned, you boot into the desktop, you click on Menu in the bottom-left corner, see the popular folders listed there, but one seems to be missing– the games folder!

In just a few simple steps, we will show you how to get the Games folder to appear, complete with a nice selection of popular games for the Gnome desktop environment.

Step 1

Click on the terminal located under the Menu:

click on the terminal

click on the terminal

 Step 2

Type sudo apt-get install gnome-games at the prompt:

terminal window

terminal window

Press Enter when it asks if you want to continue, then it will download the games, and all the dependencies, all within your Live environment!

Step 3

Finished! Enjoy your new games, as you can now see, there are quite a few games to try out, for all ages. Here is a screenshot of the final product, that just took a couple of minutes of your time:

Finally, we have games!

Finally, we have games!

Here is a list of the games we just installed:

AisleRiot Solitaire, Chess, Five or More, Four-in-a-row, FreeCell Solitaire, lagno, Klotski, Mahjongg, Mines, Nibbles, Quadrapassel, Robots, Sudoku, Tali, Tetravex

©2012 Linux.Bihlman.com

post written using Firefox on the Linux Mint 12 Live CD!

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By Ken W Richards

In this article I will explain how to safely migrate your website to a new host without losing search engine ranking. Or in other words, how NOT to migrate your site to another host and avoid the same mistakes that I have made.

Mistakes to Avoid

About five years ago, I needed to migrate my website to a new hosting platform. The problem was, I wanted to move the site to a Unix host and I had built a website using Active Server Pages hosted under Windows Internet Information Server (web server). At the time, my windows host had experienced significant downtime and numerous service outages which were impacting my business.

Being the competent programmer that I am, I decided to just convert the whole site to PHP so that it could easily be hosted on my newly acquired whiz bang fancy hosting server. That was not an undertaking that I took lightly, although I definitely should have paid more attention to the search engines before even considering this change.

I was of the naive opinion that since my website was still under the same domain name and the content was identical that search engines such as Google would realize that this is the same site and I wouldn’t lose any page rank. The major mistake that I made was that I had changed to a new scripting language which caused all of my URLs to change. Instead of a URL ending with portfolio.asp, I now had all of my pages with the new PHP extension like portfolio.php.

This was mistake number 1. My second mistake was not redirecting my original URLs using Apache’s URL rewriting module (mod_rewrite). This module will tell all visitors looking for the old pages, that a web page has permanently moved via an HTTP redirect (status code 301). Without this information, all of my hard-earned page rank was lost and by the time that I figured out what happened, it was too late for me to correct the problem.

This kind of mistake is every webmaster’s nightmare and definitely something you should hope to avoid. One thing you realize as a webmaster is that no website change should be taken lightly. Be aware of the implications of your actions on the search engines and also for visitors to your site who expect a certain level of usability and friendliness from you website.

Website Mistakes to Avoid

  • Changing your page URLs (script names, document path, or domain name)
  • Converting Your Site to Another Scripting Language so that the URL is affected (see above)
  • Duplicating content from one page to another
  • Duplicating content from one domain to another
  • Duplicating title tags
  • Duplicating META description tags

Duplicating content is a big concern for webmasters due to the way that search engines index content. When a search engine finds duplicate content, it will just ignore the duplicated content. Only content for the primary or most “authoritative” page will be indexed. As a webmaster, you will want to ensure that your content is unique and also relevant to the web page its located on.

Webmasters should also be careful not to duplicate content in TITLE and META DESCRIPTION elements which appear in the HEAD section of a document. This content is picked up by search engines and used to create the actual search results which appear in sites such as Yahoo and Bing.

How to Safely Migrate a Website

So now that you have read my admonitions, but you still want to migrate your site to a new host, here are some guidelines to follow to do so safely without losing page rank.

First and foremost, before you begin any migration, you must make sure your website conforms to the Google Webmaster Guidelines. These guidelines contain detailed instructions on what search engines look for in a website. The rules not only help you to make your site more usable for visitors and searchers, they also help you to rank better for important keywords for organic search marketing.

If you are changing URLs

If you are changing URLs for the pages on your site because you are converting to a new server-side scripting language or you are just re-organizing pages on your website, you should follow these additional guidelines:

  • Make sure you put a permanent redirect (HTTP status 301) for all of the old URLs on your site you wish to migrate.
  • If you really care about search engine rankings, minimize your use of Flash, Silverlight, Java and JavaScript.
  • All pages should be navigated using standard HTML hyperlinks
  • All relevant content should be embedded using plain old HTML

What if I lose Page Rank?

What should you do if you lose page rank after a migration? Whether you followed the guidelines above or not, you can still take corrective action as long as it hasn’t been too long since you performed your migration.

The first thought on a lot of webmaster’s minds is to revert the website back to the old version to attempt to regain the page rank. This may certainly be an option, but it is not one that I would advise. The following suggestions should help you to regain your page rank without reverting your website.

  • If you haven’t already, follow all of the guidelines above for migrating your site properly
  • This includes putting in all of the redirects for URLs which have changed
  • Google allows you to request reconsideration of your website due to poor ranking
  • Page rank can be lost as the result of a penalty incurred because a website has participated in a link-swapping scheme or purchased links for improving search engine rank.

Monitoring Your Ranking

There are a lot of tools available to webmasters who wish to track their website rankings. Check out Search Engine Optimization plug-ins for Firefox and Google Chrome browsers. They provide webmasters with a wealth of information for marketing your website. Some of the features they offer include search engine ranking, total pages indexed, number of backlinks, and any HTML validation errors that occurred while parsing the HTML markup.

Check out the Web Rank toolbar for the Firefox browser and Chrome SEO add-on for the Chrome browser. Also, the SEO site tools add-on for Chrome is very useful for tracking your search engine metrics. To learn more about online marketing of websites, check out the SEO Moz website. You will find lots of information here regarding optimizing and marketing your website.

Be sure to educate yourself on SEO and SEM because it is a continually evolving field and there are new discoveries and innovations being made all the time. Only through constant vigilance and persistence can webmasters hope to market and manage a business successfully.

Ken is the founder of Orvado Technologies, a San Diego Web Design company building custom web apps using search engine optimization and intuitive user interfaces.

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Linux Vs Windows Web Hosting

By George Szifo

Linux web hosting (often referred to as LAMP – Linux, Apache, MySQL & PHP) solutions are suitable for webmasters who use Linux hosting features, such as Perl programming, PHP programming and MySQL database.

Windows Web Hosting gives a company the capability of designing web sites using the ever-popular Windows Operating System. This allows development using technologies such as Active Server Pages (ASP), COM, and the newer.NET infrastructure.

Advantages of using Linux based server compared to Windows based web server:-

1.Stable:-

Linux operating system is very stable and robust. A website hosted on a Linux operating system will have very high up-time.

2. Low cost of ownership:-

Linux OS comes free of cost. Also, it has fully fledged server, and desk top applications that come free with the OS. These server applications (such as FTP, Web Server, DNS Server, File Server etc.) are also very stable.

3. Easy to move between hosts:

A website designed to host on a Linux server can be hosted on a Windows server easily, where as the reverse is not always true.

4. Most widely used: Linux/Unix based web hosting is most widely used compared to Windows web hosting.

5. Scalability: A web site designed for compatibility with a Linux/Unix based web server meets the scalability requirement easily without making any site wide design changes.

Disadvantage:-

Linux based web server is not fully compatible with Microsoft technologies. If you are using any specialized applications or VB for development of your web site, it is preferable to host with a Windows based web server.

Both these web server are used by users for different purposes and the selection of the web hosting depends upon the nature of the website or business. Linux server administration and Linux server management has been more effective for complex websites, where as Windows servers are used for sites which needs different configuration.

 

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By Justin Knights

Both Linux and Unix sound very similar to each other and they are both in fact is similar because they have many things associated with one another. Both can be used as an operating system that can do well for you but in order to have a better picture on the difference between them, let us take a further look into them.

In the older days, Unix was the only option for corporations. Linux was an operating system that spawned off from Unix. It was initially an academic project and was not even being considered for networking purposes. Things only changed after a few years as the system head mainstream because there a many software developers out there using it and providing support for it. Since then, Linux has emerged to be a solution for small to medium sized operations while Unix remains the choice for more demanding operations where multiple process and systems are involved.

As for the cost for the distribution of these two systems, Linux will be ahead of Unix because it remains as an open-sourced option. Users can obtain it for free unless they are planning to use it on a server environment. If that is the case, they might have to make a initial purchase. Unix on the other hand requires a fee making it costlier than Linux. If you include hardware, a Unix server might cost from $25,000 and above. therefore, Unix is in a difficult position to be competitive towards Linux. This makes it even easier for users to choose the latter of the two hosting option.

The growth of Linux in recent years has been proving it to be a solid solution for users out thee especially when used in a server-based operating system. This has force Unix to customize their features to make it more compatible with Linux in order to stay competitive. Unix systems like AIX, Solaris and HP-UX have all been modified and integrated to make it more similar to Linux. So, you can say that Linux has become more powerful than Unix in today’s world of operating system.

Before I end this article…

Without doubt, web hosting is a must-learn topic for every modern business owner nowadays. Since you are reading this article, there are high chances that you are actually one of us that need guides in term of website hosting.

If you are new and are having hard time picking up the right web host, I suggest you to have a look on TopWebHostReview.net. It’s an informative site that help cut the guess work and provides useful web host buying guide. I am sure their unbiased hosting reviews and top web host awards ( like this Best WordPress Hosting ) will help you to select the best web host in no time.

This article is written by Justin Knights, a freelance techie who loves to write about web hosting and development tips.

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By John Lenaghan

Windows or Unix/Linux – which operating system should you choose for your web hosting? This question is often asked when webmasters start looking for web site hosting. The operating system you choose can make a big difference in your business plans as your website grows.

Windows-Based Web Hosts

Windows-based servers use programs such as Microsoft Access and MS SQL for “back-end” operations. Scripting is also handled by Microsoft technologies such as ASP (Active Server Pages) and VBScript.

Perhaps more importantly, Windows-based servers can easily be managed and multiplexed by using .NET technology. They offer excellent support, security and integration for Microsoft products.

They’re a good choice for either shared or dedicated hosting, but the features offered by Windows servers do come at an extra cost which may be an issue for small businesses.

The reason there is often a higher cost associated with Windows servers is because the software they are based on costs the hosting company money. They have to buy them all from Microsoft, and that cost gets passed on to you.

This is in comparison to the free software technologies which are generally used on Unix or Linux-based servers.

Unix/Linux-Based Web Hosts

Unix and Linux are two different operating systems, but because they work essentially the same way, we’ll consider them as one for the purposes of this article.

One of the most important characteristics of Unix-based servers is that they can handle a large amount of traffic. Unix is a robust operating system and can easily handle hosting multiple websites on a single server.

They’re also very flexible and the services running on a given webserver are easily customizable. Unlike Windows, Unix servers aren’t limited to special remote administration programs. Any computer with an internet connection can login to a typical Unix server using freely available software.

A lot of webmasters choose Unix over Windows because of the server uptime. Windows servers can provide very good uptime as well, but to do so the web hosting company has to be proficient with Microsoft systems. There tend to be more hosts who are familiar with Unix than with Windows on the hosting side of things.

So Which is the Right Choice?

For the average website, a Unix hosting plan is often the best choice. However, if you need to use Microsoft technologies such as Access or MS SQL databases, or ASP or VBScript scripting languages, you should opt for a Windows host.

Note that even though Frontpage is a Microsoft product, it is supported by both Windows and Unix hosts. If you’re considering a Unix host and using Frontpage, make sure they offer “Frontpage Extensions” support.

John Lenaghan writes about Unix & Windows web hosting, business hosting and other website hosting topics on the Hosting Report website. Find out more at http://www.hostingreport.org

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By Daryl DSouza

Websites have become a need for many entrepreneurs. Small and large enterprises, alike, make sure that they have a website to represent their business. But having a website is not a child’s play! You need to take care of many things. Choosing a web hosting company is the easiest option available to you. You need not worry about anything that way. The company will see to all your hosting needs. However, this easy way out may prove disastrous, if you do not choose an appropriate web hosting company.

There are many things to consider before finalizing a web hosting company. The service provider should have the technical expertise and resources to host a website. It should not be a novice to this field. The services should be affordable. Less downtime, technical support, and back-up services are mandatory traits. Apart from all this, clients also need to find out which operating systems the web hosting company hosts its website. There are four operating systems to host a website. They cannot be compared to each other. Each one is good in its own way. The four operating systems can be given as below:

*Windows: Microsoft Windows is a popular operating system amongst website hosting companies. It is a good choice for both – shared servers and dedicated server. It can easily integrate Microsoft products. Support can be easily procured for this OS. However, running a Windows operating system may prove expensive. You should select windows web hosting company, only if you are acquainted with maintaining Window systems.

*Linux: Linux has many advantages over Windows. It is cheaper than Windows. It is platform independent. Anybody can use access the website, no matter which operating system they are using. However, new users may not find it easy to use. Besides, Linux come from different companies. There is no standard edition of Linux like Windows. You can go for it if you are planning to host your site on a shared server. Using it on a dedicated server is not advisable.

*Unix: Unix is similar to Linux. There are many advantages associated with a Unix web hosting company. As compared to Windows; Unix enjoys high up-time, better server load handling capacity, and reliability. However, availability of Unix software is less in the market. It is not used as much as Windows or Linux, because it is more expensive than Linux. The hardware for Unix is more specific. It is recommended for virtual web server.

*Macintosh: Macintosh operating systems are rarely found. You may find it very difficult to find a web hosting company to host it on Macintosh. However, it is the most secured OS. Hackers may not be able to hack the server easily. It is the most expensive OS in the four operating systems.

These are the four operating systems on which a web hosting company can host your website. One cannot debate on which OS is better! It largely depends on the programming language you used to create your website and the applications you run on your web server. Web hosting companies usually host the website on Windows or Linux. You need to consider all the aspects before finalizing on which operating system to use.

Author is connected with web hosting company India – Zysek. Author often writes Indian website hosting and managed IT services in India articles. Check more information at Zysek.com.

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Which Operating System is More Functional – Windows Or UNIX (Linux)?

By Charles S Taylor

Choosing the efficient Operating System is depends on several factors. Whether it is for personal use or for office use, choosing the OS platform is the vital part

History of Unix chart

History of Unix chart (click for larger)

of long-term plan, as it can’t be changed often. You need to consider your requirements both short-term and long-term and the features of Windows and UNIX before choosing the OS.

The following are the some of the important features and properties of the two Operating Systems that will help you to understand them better.

1. Multi-User System: Windows OS is designed to be used by one person at a time, whereas multiple persons can share UNIX OS at a time in a network.

2. Security: Windows users are burdened with the need for anti-virus and anti-spyware software. On the other side, for UNIX it is not required, as it is more secure than Windows.

3. Bugs: UNIX has a reputation for fewer bugs (programming mistakes) than Windows.

4. Performance: Under low-stress conditions, both have similar performance.

However, under high load, UNIX is superior to Windows.

5. Simplicity: To operate UNIX OS we need a little knowledge of Character User Interface, whereas it is very simple to operate Windows OS.

6. Compatibility: If you designed a website under a UNIX server you can easily host it on the Windows server, but the reverse is not always possible.

7. Website Hosting: If you want to use MySQL as backend then go for UNIX. If you need MSSQL as backend then Windows OS is a better option.

8. Application Software: You will get Application software along with UNIX OS package, whereas with Windows you won’t get it.

9. Run the OS without installing it: UNIX can be run with Live CD even without installing it. Windows cannot run until it is installing into hard disk.

10. File System: UNIX protects data with Journalized file system, while Windows uses both journalized and non-journalized file systems. There is less protection of data with the non-journalized file systems.

11. Fragmentation: UNIX file system doesn’t suffer from file fragmentation but Windows file system will be, which results a single file may scatter all over the hard disk as fragments.

12. Crossing the OS boundary: Some Application softwares written for UNIX will not run under Windows and vice versa.

13. Placing User Data: UNIX stores all user data in the home directory making it much easier to migrate from an old computer to new one.

On the other hand, Windows stores data anywhere in the hard disk making it hard to backup files when switching to a new computer.

14. Hardware Compatibility: UNIX can run on different hardware platforms but Windows can’t.

15. Supported hardware devices: UNIX supports less hardware devices than Windows.

16. Ability to run without GUI: UNIX can run without Graphical User Interface so it needs less hardware horsepower than Windows.

17. Price: You can get a copy of genuine UNIX free of cost, whereas you have to buy Windows OS.

The two Operating Systems serve different purposes. The above information helps you to choose the better one that suits your requirements.

Insightful and honest opinions on issues related to various topics including small businesses, economy, international information, health, financial advices, technology tips and home improvement. We publish on topics after analyzing rigorously so this information is useful to our visitors.

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By Gabriel Py Ng

Test Logical security of Unix servers.

unix securityThis area covers the technical security assessment of Unix, Linux servers (commands are similar but some are different. Please check with the respective man pages).

Stage 1 scan using Nessus and check for vulnerabilities and Nmap for ports. Highlight the ports and refer to IANA for details. Print report.

Scan using Nessus (ensure latest updates are done).

Stage 2 more etc/passwd and /etc/shadow > to password.txt and shadow.txt in home directory. Check the security of these files, check IDs and /etc/group.

1. This is like the basic security measure that any server MUST take. i.e. IDs and Groups.

2. What to check. More /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow.

3. Look out for normal IDs – are all these active and belongs to users that have resigned ?

4. Lookout for system IDs – active, are they required – they may be powerful

5. Test ID, Developer IDs, Root equivalent IDs – active ? Why ?

6. Intruders often use finger or ruser to discover account names and then try simple passwords. Please let your users know that complex passwords are a must. Simple passwords just make the hacker’s job easier.

7. If intruders can get a password file, they usually move or copy it to another machine and run password guessing programs on it. These programs involve large dictionary searches and run quickly even on slow machines. Most systems that do not put any controls on the types of passwords used probably have at least one password that can be easily guessed.

8. It is a good practice to change all your passwords. For extremely critical servers, passwords should be change everytime root equivalent, developer IDs are used. If this is not practical, perhaps 3 months or 6 months interval.

9. Intruders exploit system default passwords that have not been changed since installation,including accounts with vendor-supplied default passwords. Be sure to change all default passwords when the software is installed. There are software upgrades that can change account passwords to a new default at the background. Review and change passwords after updates are done.

More /etc/passwd > /home/Gabriel/password.csv

More /etc/shadow > /home/Gabriel/shadow.csv

Stage 3 Check world writable files and directories. This is also a must. Imagine your most critical business files are accessible to everybody. Find them and take the necessary steps to control their rights.

find / -type f -perm -22 -exec ls -l > /home/Gabriel/worldfiles.csv ;

find / -type d -perm -22 -exec ls -l > /home/Gabriel/worlddirectory.csv ;

Stage 4 Search for SUID and GUID files

* SUID and GUID can allow normal users to become root equivalent when these programs are owned by Root.

* To mitigate this risk, it will be prudent that these files are not world readable as power users may find ways to run these programs. Or remove them if not necessary

* SUID and GUID are normally found in /bin, /etc, /usr/bin, /usr/ucb, /usr/etc, pay attention if they are found in other directories.

* Look for SUID files (especially SUID root files) everywhere on your system. Intruders often leave SUID copies of /bin/sh around to allow them root access at a later time. The UNIX find program can be used to search for setuid files.

Find / -user root -perm -4000 -exec ls -l > /home/Gabriel_ng/rootsuid.csv ;

Find SUID and GUID on root directory.

Find / -xdev -perm -004000 -exec ls-l {} > /home/Gabriel_ng/suid.csv ;

Find / -xdev -perm -002000 -exec ls-l {} > /home/Gabriel_ng/guid.csv ;

Stage 5 Check for network files – /etc/hosts.equiv, .rhosts, /etc/hosts.allow, hosts.deny

* Important factor in network security is controlling network access. The /etc/hosts.equiv, .rhosts and /etc/passwd control whether access is given to rlogin, rcp, and rsh. The /etc/hosts.equiv contain a list of hosts that can be trusted or considered equivalent to that machine. Some systems uses /etc/hosts.allow and /etc/hosts.deny rather than a single /etc/hosts.equiv. The .rhosts files holds a list of hosts that are permitted access to a specific user.

* Because .rhosts files allow access to the system without using a password it is recommended that users do not create them in their home directories.

Check for /etc/hosts.equiv, .rhosts , /etc/hosts.deny and /etc/hosts.allow

Find /home -name .rhosts -print

Stage 6 Check system monitoring – logs.

Check /etc/sudoers – ability for users to run commands as “root” with sudoers.

More /etc/sudoers > /home/Gabriel/sudoers.csv

Other includes /var/adm/acct, /var/adm/wtmp, var/adm/btmp, var/adm/syslog/syslog.log

Check /var/adm/sulog

1. SU 10/19 14:15 + tty q3 root-test1 – list the date and time, + indicate successful and – failure. If there is repeat failure could be indication that someone is trying to break in using su.

Stage 7 By piping all files in csv or text files, it will be easier to analyze the details and work with the relevant parties to tighten the security.

Gabriel Ng is the author of [http://www.comsectutorial.com] This site is setup to provide information, recommendation on hacking prevention, controls to minimise security threats from viruses, trojans, spywares, hacking based real life experience while conducting security assessment and penetration tests. This video touches a bit on unix security.

[http://www.comsectutorial.com/server-vulnerabilities.html] Enjoy!

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