Tag: FOSS

By Raghu Bharadwaj

I would like to introduce you to a chronology of events that happened in the early 80′s and 90′s.

Richard Stallman, founder of the GNU project

Richard Stallman, founder of the GNU project

For Richard Stallman things started to look bad with the collapse of the free community at the Artificial Intelligence lab at MIT in the early 80′s, with modern era operating systems, none of them free software, were coming with a nondisclosure agreement which said, you are not allowed to share or change the software and if you want to get something changed, ask us to do it for you.

This sounded anti-social to the software-sharing community that had existed for many years at the MIT, who enjoyed and agreed sharing their programs with universities and companies. And to see or to change the source code of an unfamiliar program to create a new one was quite common.

After losing his community, Stallman always had the choice of joining the proprietary software world, writing code under nondisclosure agreements, which he believed divided the software society and a means for not helping a fellow hacker (“Someone who loves to program and enjoys being clever about it”) or quitting the computer field, which was rather an unpleasant thing to do as it would have wasted his skills as an operating system developer. Other way round was to build the community back by writing free programs again.

GNU Project

GNU logo

Now the idea was pretty clear, what was needed first is an operating system. With a free operating system, a community of cooperating hackers would be able to use a computer without starting to deprive his or her friend. He chose to make the system compatible with UNIX so that it would be portable, and UNIX users could easily switch to it. The name GNU was chosen for the project following a hacker tradition, as a recursive acronym for “GNU’s Not Unix”.

The GNU project started with an objective to create a “free software” society, here the term “free” is often misunderstood and it has nothing to do with price. It is about freedom. It is defined as:

»You have the freedom to run the program, for any purpose.

»You have the freedom to modify the program to suit your needs. (To make this freedom effective in practice, you must have access to the source code, since making changes in a program without having the source code is exceedingly difficult.)

»You have the freedom to redistribute copies, either gratis or for a fee.

»You have the freedom to distribute modified versions of the program, so that the community can benefit from your improvements.

After quitting his job at MIT in 1984 Stallman began writing the GNU software. First he began by writing a compiler from scratch, which is now popularly known as GCC and the GNU Emacs editor for writing and editing his programs.

Free Software Foundation

Free Software Foundation logo

As users of Emacs were growing, more people were getting involved in the GNU project, and this forced Stallman to look for some funding. So in 1985 the Free Software Foundation (FSF) was created, a tax-exempt charity for free software development. Since then Free Software Foundation employees have written and maintained a number of GNU software packages, two notable ones are the C library and the shell.

Gradually more and more programs were added to the GNU system and most of them gained popularity as they could run on the Unix systems, and users began extending them and porting them to the various incompatible versions of Unix, and sometimes to other systems as well.

By 1990 the GNU system was almost complete, with a major missing link, the kernel, which actually does the job of managing the system resources. The decision was to implement the kernel as a collection of server processes running on top of Mach, a microkernel developed at Carnegie Mellon University and then at the University of Utah. This kernel named the GNU HURD (or “herd of gnus”) could run on top of Mach, and do the various jobs of the UNIX kernel.

GNU/Linux System

In 1991, a student from Finland named Linus Torvalds developed a Unix-compatible kernel and called it Linux. And around1992, combining Linux with the not-quite-complete GNU system resulted in a complete free operating system, the GNU/Linux system. It is due to Linux that a version of the GNU system could be run today.

GPL (GNU General Public License)

GNU Public License logo

All the software under the GNU project were distributed under the GPL, which says that you can copy and distribute exact copies of the program’s source code as you have received it. You can make changes or modify the program and again redistribute under the first mentioned condition, with clear notices of your changes and date of that change.

Linux Distributions

linux distributions

Many Linux distributions based on the GNU/Linux system are currently available both as free copies and commercial distributions. Most of these distributors add up their own features, targeting specific areas like Enterprise, Desktop, Multimedia etc., to the existing GNU system, to cater diverse user sections. Some noted ones are RedHat, Fedora (an open project by RedHat), Debian, Suse from Novell, Mandriva, Ubuntu, Sabayon, PCLinuxOS, SimplyMEPIS, Knoppix, Gentoo etc. All these distributions intend to target different set of users. So you, now have the options of choosing the distribution based on your intended use, like suse, ubuntu, PCLinuxOS for user friendliness, debian, fedora for development, RedHat for Enterprise and so on. Least to say programming would be delightful on all of them.

Where do I get Linux?

Most of the Linux distributions are freely available for download from the Internet;

Fedora from download.fedora.redhat.com

Suse from novell.com

Debian from debian.org

There are also other links from where you can pull down these distributions. And if you do not want to waste time downloading, buy them from people like OSDisc.com, LinuxCD.org etc., but I am sure you would definitely find one, among your colleagues.

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Open Source Software Versus Proprietary Software – An Insight

By Venugopal C K

Introduction

Not long back, Microsoft ruled the roost in software industry. It is ironical that the software giant is now stretching itself to the limits to overcome the crisis it is facing largely from the open source software market. The software prices have plummeted due the leveling factor the proprietary software faces now in the form of free and open source software. It is good to see programmers and software professionals, world over uniting to share their know-how to produce good quality software. During the 1980′s pc’s were introduced which paved way for large scale computerization in all walks of life. There was a time when software prices were astronomical and Microsoft dictated terms. Now with the advent of internet and web based applications, FOSS (Free and Open Source Software) is available for download and customizing from individuals as well as organizations.

Before we examine the nuances of FOSS, it would be appropriate to discuss the various barriers that exist in Proprietary or Closed Source model. Under Closed Source model the source code is not revealed to the public. Examples of this kind of software include the popular Microsoft Office suite which is the most widely used office automation package world over. Microsoft is the chief proponent of this category of software right from the advent of Pc’s. Compared to this, FOSS model allows the user to download the software free of cost and also make modifications to the source code. This has resulted in large scale development of free and open source software and a number of Indians have joined this bandwagon. The advantages cited by proponents for having such a structure are mutual benefits such as sharing of knowledge, superior products and acceptability and not to say the cost savings.

Free software means the user has the freedom to run, copy, distribute, study, change and improve the software. More precisely, it means that the program’s users have the four essential freedoms:

  1. The freedom to run the program, for any purpose (freedom 0).
  2. The freedom to study how the program works, and change it to make it do what you wish (freedom 1). Access to the source code is a precondition for this.
  3. The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor (freedom 2).
  4. The freedom to improve the program, and release your improvements (and modified versions in general) to the public, so that the whole community benefits (freedom 3). Access to the source code is a precondition for this.

The GNU Project

(references: www.gnu.org )

From the above mentioned four freedoms given to the user regarding the use of free software, it is apparent that the user has a free hand in even deciding the using the software and customizing it. This is in stark contrast to the rules regarding proprietary software. The sense of service and trust is essential for FOSS to survive. Internet has opened doors for this acceptance by masses. With increased download speeds and reduction in usage costs, downloading a software is no longer a daunting task.

Proprietary software

It is evident that for the primary business model for closed source software, the manufacturer imposes certain constraints and restrictions about accessing the source code and also on what can be done with the software. It may be noted that it is very easy to copy and redistribute software. FOSS suppliers do this as part of their policy. Taking this as a threat to their profit making motive, proprietary software firms sometimes create an illusion of artificial scarcity of the product. This is like black marketers who create artificial scarcity of food products during a crisis. In this case of proprietary software the end-user is not actually purchasing the software, but is only granted the right to use the software. Hence it can be clearly evidenced that the source code of closed source software is considered a trade secret by the proprietor.

FOSS (Free and Open Source Software)

FOSS does not limit the use of software as done by closed source software. The suppliers of FOSS generate revenue through support services. An example for such a company is Canonical Ltd, which gives its software free of cost but charges for support services. The source code is given along with the pre-compiled binary software for convenience of the user. As a result, the source code can be freely modified. However, there can be some license-based restrictions on re-distributing the software. Generally, software can be modified and re-distributed for free, as long as credit is given to the original manufacturer of the software. FOSS may also be funded through donations. Linux community has effectively harnessed this model to provide a number of successful and popular packages. Software like OpenOffice and MySQL has been immensely in the open market and has forced Microsoft to reduce its prices and provide error-free operating systems and solutions.

Windows 7 was released in India at a lower price keeping in mind the competition from FOSS. Windows Vista was not a success, largely due to the fact that its memory hungry interfaces and applications were not popular among the users. To tide over the criticism faced by Windows Vista, Windows 7 was released at a lower price and with better features. The credit for this change can be attributed to the overwhelming popularity of FOSS.

On the whole it can be said that the in the coming years, FOSS will play a major role in shaping the software industry and by giving the user the final say. The positive side of this competition is that Proprietary software will improve in quality and will be forced to clamp restrictions on pricing. This is a positive signal for the software sector globally.

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Linux Or Window System? Which One Works For You?

By Darren Thomas

Windows and Linux ( also being known as UNIX ) are two of the most popular platforms today, each has their own favorite followers and so-called fans because each of these platforms have their own advantages, so to speak.

Come on and let us study together what are the advantages of these two platforms,

i. Reliability – many specialists such as developers cited that UNIX is way more reliable than Windows. However many others who have been with Windows NT4.0 claimed that the reliability of Windows can be very close to UNIX, and this is especially true relying on the proficiency of the non-professionals whom are using Windows.

ii. Performance – well, I guess after some good debates, Windows and Linux are equally great in sustaining the quality of their hosting tasks and therefore had been performing well in their Hosting performance consistently.

iii. Cost – UNIX is definitely a lot cheaper than Windows, due to the fact that majority of the UNIX software products are distributed under a free of charge license while for Windows, this has never being the case. Comparatively UNIX hosting is more popular than Windows because for the same level of performance and flexibility among these two platforms but one is mostly free of charge or very likely to be a lot cheaper than the other platform, which one would you choose as a consumer?

iv. Accessibility and ease of use – today, there is really no significant differences between these two platforms in the perspective of user-friendliness. Both of them can be used with great ease. However, if you are a professional in the web hosting world, then UNIX would be your optimum choice, while for new-comers, you can choose any of these platforms as both of them are comes with a user friendly control panel with a user interface over the website.

v. Open source – one of the greatest advantages of UNIX is its open source based, with that, It is highly compatible to work with many different operating systems with ease. However as Windows is not of open source based, it is not as flexible as UNIX.

vi. Stability – although each of these platforms has their own fans as said before, however because UNIX or Linux are mostly servers, they tend to be more stable and it is the best choice for users who need a stable environment to deliver their tasks such as for a developer or even for a secretary.

vii. Linux work best for professional games – Games which are created for Linux work seamlessly, and in addition to that, some of the Windows games can be enabled to work in Linux. One good example is the: Play-station 3 is now being shipped with Linux pre-installed on the hard disk.

viii. Support and guidance – because of the significant number of users using Windows today, it is often found to get support and assistance easier should you have any issues with Windows platform. The turn-around time for fixing any issues for resolution is much faster for Windows, no doubt on that.

Despite whether you are an avid fans of Windows or Linux, you deserved to be complimented on the great work you have done in working on Windows or Linux to discover many of their benefits over the other in many different areas.

This is one great knowledge sharing among us as consumers because to be able to pick yourself a good hosting provider, paying to every little details are essential.

When you are searching for web hosting, reverse researching is important where you should find out the complaints about the host. Which field they are weak in? What mistake they always do? This can give you a clear picture on their performance. For more information, check out web hosting reviews.

Darren is a full time web developer attached with a web hosting company.

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Be Free – Use Linux on your PC

In these times of financial turmoil, one must find as many ways to save money as possible. One of the most important areas of life people may spend a big chunk of their money on is with their computer. That is why finding ways to lessen bills relating to using your computer(s) can become evident so quickly. By following my tips below you can find yourself immediately starting to see the costs of your PC use drop dramatically.

linux-free-software-stickerFirst, and most important is to use Linux. Linux is a free, and open source competitor to Microsoft®, and Linux is the “kernel”, or fundamental coding of the Operating System, which is utilized through one of hundreds of different Linux distributions, or distros. The details may seem complicated to a lifetime Windows user, but a bit of research can make it all plain in no time. Distrowatch.com is a great place to start looking at all the different, exciting types of distros that are out there to pick from. The freedom to choose and setup just the Linux system makes it very exciting too, if you want to have the control, and not have a big corporation somewhere tell you what you can and can’t do with your own computer. That’s another very important advantage of Linux- It is not “owned” by any single organization, so you have the freedom to do what you want.

First of all, lets compare the initial costs of putting the latest Linux distro on a new computer, or the latest Windows, which is currently Windows 7. We will use Ubuntu as the Linux distro since it is the most popular, but would could use any Linux example, now couldn’t we?

From Ubuntu.com

From Ubuntu.com

$0.00

Now Windows:

From Microsoft.com

From Microsoft.com

$199.99 to $319.99

As you can see, right off the bat you are hundreds of dollars ahead just by choosing Linux as your operating system!

Let’s choose one more example. This time, since we already have our operating system selected, we need an office suite, right? Well, Microsoft® has a very popular one, ubiquitously known as “Microsoft Office”. Well, don’t fret Linux users, you can’t use that app, but we have one that is quite compatible, and some would argue better, Sun’s Open Office. Let’s compare prices:

From Openoffice.org

From Openoffice.org

$0.00

Now Microsoft Office:

From Microsoft.com

From Microsoft.com

$149.95 to $679.95

As you can, we can save lots of money in the basics by taking the Linux route, versus the mainstream-friendly Windows path.

Grand total for a full-featured operating system, and robust office-suite:

Windows = $349.94

Linux   = $0.00

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Windows 7 Proves a Challenge to Linux
By Larry F

It seems that there is a growing battle between Microsoft and open source developers all the time. However when you speak to parties on either side of this so called war it is not the case at all, they do not regard each other as the enemy, but rather as the competition and they continue to compete in a manner that is welcomed in all free market economies.

Up to now it has seemed that the main vehicle for open source operating systems (OS) has been through the Linux stable and this OS is certainly very popular amongst those that seek to maximize the life time of their old PCs. Three main reasons for this include the fact that the OS does not take up a lot of memory, it avoids the issue of making your computer’s processors all but exhausted and then of course in these tough economic times, the fact that it is free helps a lot.

250px-Windows_7_logo.svgBut Microsoft has apparently come to the party with its latest offering in recognition of the fact that while its business model might have to change slightly, its ability to deliver high quality operating systems into the market does not have to be compromised at all. The software vendor has brought a lighter OS into the market and it seems clear that there are noticeable improvements on the highly-anticipated and then highly disappointing Vista.

Windows 7 shows that Microsoft has ensured that it has learned the lessons that Vista had to teach it. The OS is lighter and does not demand as much memory as its predecessor. Microsoft has targeted that part of the market that wants to liven up their old PC and get the most value out of it. Instead of charging the earth for a copy of Windows 7, one is now able to buy what is termed a “family pack” for just $150. This is already an incredible improvement on historical price levels and the additional benefit about this product is that it comes with a license that allows for three upgrades.

The nature of the software market has changed considerably since the introduction of open source software and Microsoft looks like it is ready to really prove a challenge to the competition. We are likely to see less mud-slinging and more emphasis on the delivery of great products into the market such as is demonstrated by what we have seen of Windows 7 thus far.

To keep yourself updated with the latest Windows 7 news, please visit Windows 7 How.

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How To Get Out of the Microsoft Habit
By Lorie Therese Locara

In our country, we have become so addicted to Microsoft that we cannot seem to do without it. It has become like morphine: we get off it, we feel pain so great, we writhe in sheer agony.

Don’t get me wrong. I am a BIG fan of Microsoft Word and Microsoft Encarta. But the OS’s? Oh, don’t ever get me started!

From the moment I saw Ubuntu Linux, I was… Stunned to say the least. I always thought that Linux OS’s were… ubuntu_logo_250x145Primitive. Turns out, it just got bad press.

Though I thoroughly enjoyed Ubuntu, I had to delete my Ubuntu drive after about a month or two of using it when I needed the space for my other files. And the parting wasn’t easy. Though I loved Ubuntu Edgy Eft like crazy, I wasn’t ready to be weaned off Windows yet. I thought I “needed” Windows. Yeah right. Like a hole in the head.

The decision to fully migrate my desktop to Ubuntu or any other reliable Linux distro came when my Windows XP melted down. I decided I was finally ready to move permanently… When I discovered Wine. But more on that later. This is an article on how to choose a different OS. :p

The mainstream Operating Systems for desktops for the everyday user come in two major branches. I know, I know, there are other OS’s out there, but for the moment, I’ll just talk about the most well-known, most user-friendly “Windows alternatives”.

How to choose the OS for you

Choosing is a universal function of needs, desires, and availability, among other factors. There is no one way to go about it, and sadly, it is not a science. but I have made a system for myself on how I can go about my own choices. I hope my system would help you. Below are the steps on how I go about making Operating System choices.

Know what you need.

Knowing what you need need not be a precursor to lobotomy. Just grab a notepad and the guidelines and questions below may help you:

What is it that you do?

Are you a graphic artist? A web designer? A writer? A student? A casual user?

Base your choices on what you do, because your needs will depend on this.

What software needs to be on your computer?

If you are a graphic artist or a web designer, you would definitely need tools like Adobe Photoshop. If you cannot afford the price, there are alternatives like the Gimp on Linux. However, I have a friend who says that he can never work on Linux, though he’s not a Microsoft loyalist. According to him, Adobe Photoshop doesn’t look as good on Linux as it does on Microsoft Windows. BUT, there is Adobe Photoshop for Mac, and it actually looks light years better than on Windows. Why? Mac screens are just rich, with the million-color support. If you have the money to burn, and you need apps like Adobe Photoshop and even Dreamweaver, then you better get OS X. Or else, get yourself a Macbook/Macbook Pro/iMac. Now. :p

As for the writer, since word processing is light, and doesn’t really require as much RAM as applications like Adobe Photoshop or Dreamweaver, which, in turn, require support for high resolution, I guess it would be safe for me to recommend that you use Linux. There are excellent applications to replace MS Office, like Open Office, Star Office, etc. AbiWord is an excellent MS Word replacement. It’s light, fast, and simple. And you can write in pure white space, if you’re allergic to distractions. These applications can save in the MS Word .doc format. But if you just have to have the MS Word formatting for your work, then by all means, go for Ubuntu Linux’s Feisty Fawn! It has Wine built into the system. Wine is the application that can run your MS programs, and it’s really an excellent tool to wean you off the Microsoft addiction. Though I have yet to try out Wine on Linux, as I am waiting for the official release of Feisty Fawn on April 19, I have tried Crossover, a non-free distro of Wine, on my OS X. It was able to run MS Office seamlessly so far. It’s not slow when it’s up and running, and though the fonts are just smaller, the main point is, it’s running the Microsoft program. Enough said. I’m planning to pay for my copy when the trial expires.

Students, on the other hand, have varied needs. I recommend Linux if you’re not into heavy photo editing anyway, as:

  • It’s free.
  • If you want games, Wine can run World of Warcraft for you. Yes it does. Games are the priority of the Wine community!
  • Linux helps sharpen your skills, if you’re a Computer Science or Information Technology student.
  • It’s free.

If you are a casual user with money to burn, then you could definitely work well with OS X! OS X, according to my friend, is better for the dummy user than Windows! Why, I am a very destructive dummy user. I actually install anything I fancy. I have installed some pretty serious stuff here in my Macbook, decided I didn’t want them anymore, couldn’t find the documentation for how to uninstall the stuff I did, and decided, “What the hell, I’ll just toss all the programs in the trash”. The only thing I noticed that was different right after was that the fonts in iTunes got messed up a little. :D But after installing an update on everything including the system, that problem was fixed. :D Oopsie. :D

But if you’re like me, a total cheapskate, I believe that you would do well on Ubuntu or PCLinuxOS. Both are very user friendly, and I was blown away by the two Operating Systems. As soon as I get a stack of CD’s, I’m trying out the other user-friendly Linux OS’s, and I’m going to feature them here. Meanwhile, why don’t you check out these OS’s themselves, and see for yourself that they really are nice. :) Go to http://www.distrowatch.org or http://www.ubuntuforums.org to see what people think about the different OS’s, and which are the popular favorites. :)

What are the primary features that you would want on your operating system?

You would do well to make a list of what you want as features on your OS. Below is my own list:

–User-friendliness

–Easy to install built-in applications

–Package manager/handler for easy installation

–Applications that are good equivalents for Windows applications

–Easy networking setup

–Compatibility with Wine or any other Windows emulator

–Can read Fat32 (hard drive format) for easy Windows sharing

–Customizable User Interface

–Installable Windows/Apple media codecs

–Easy install of Java and other media support

–Fast loading/non RAM hog

–The OS does not “hang,” restart randomly, or crashes. If it does, it should be rare, or like in Ubuntu, will only prompt that it has crashed, but will not affect the operation of the system or its applications.

–The OS should have a very helpful support community.

So far, Ubuntu Linux is my best choice. It is the best in application installation, has a really wide range of built-in apps, and with each release in its 6-month cycle, it gets increasingly user-friendly, and is getting more packed in features as the days go by. Ubuntu Feisty Fawn comes with a Windows networking setup manager, so it will be easier to manage your local network/s. It also comes with Wine, so you don’t need to really rack your brain with how to install this (non) emulator. The only thing that’s annoying with Ubuntu is that it takes long in starting up.

If you want a faster OS, you can try PCLinuxOS. I have yet to install it, so I don’t know about its application manager: if it’s easy to deal with or not. But it’s highly user-friendly according to forums, and as I’ve used it through its live CD. And it’s eye candy, too. :)

Ubuntu can also become eye candy if you install themes and change the desktop background. If you find the pre-installed brown theme yucky, change it! The options are shown when you right click on the desktop, the panels, ubuntu128x130and if you go to system>themes. Mine is delicious pink. Heehee. :D

Another thing that is great in Ubuntu is the kick-ass community. According to some people I read there, PCLinuxOS has a great community, too, as according to people I’ve read on Ubuntu’s forums. It’s actually better, according to them, as the programmers/developers themselves entertain questions on PCLinuxOS.

If your hardware cannot support heavy programs, there are “thin clients” out there, which can be run even on a decade-old machine. If your machine used to support Windows 95 and is still wired for 95, you can go for OS’s like Xubuntu or Puppy.

Research on your options.

If only I didn’t need to work, I would rather be on the forums all day and clicking away at Linux sites. So far, the best Linux distros as far as I’ve learned are Ubuntu, PCLinuxOS, Sabayon, Arch, Mint (Ubuntu based), Puppy Linux, Mepis, Xandro’s and Knoppix, to name a few. Knoppix and Puppy can be installed on removable media, and you can save your files there, especially if it’s a multisession/rewritable disk or flash drive.

Again, do try to frequent the forums, you will sure learn a lot there.

Test the top three to five on your option list.

I do not like to wade through the hundreds of Linux distros, only to find them to be lousy. I would rather know about the best few then test them. It’s a good thing that most Linux OS’s come in Live CD’s, so you can run them without having to install them. I suggest you try Ubuntu, PCLinuxOS, Xandro’s and Puppy. They are the most user-friendly around, according to most people. PCLinuxOS and Puppy are very fast. If you really like Ubuntu and just want it to run faster, as I’ve said, you can go for Xubuntu. Take heart, there is an OS out there for you. Or else, you can compile one from Linux’s source code. Hrhr. :p

As for OS X, I cannot say more. It is really an excellent Operating System. It has the stability of Linux, being also a Unix-based OS, and it is far more user-friendly than Windows. No, you do not need to have an Apple machine to run it. People have been able to run it on X86 machines successfully. Just read the how-to’s on the Internet.

OS X is really eye candy, and they have “dumbed down” the controls on a lot of the programs, to increase user-friendliness. Yes, there are moments when I feel that some Mac programs (especially the iLife programs) are too simple for my taste, but I really don’t want to complain, as they do the job, and they do it excellently. Where else can you install programs by just dragging the icon to the Applications folder? If that isn’t idiot-friendly, what is?! :D

As I said, choosing an OS need not be brain lobotomy. Just explore, research, and have a system in making choices. You need not suffer on a system that melts down with every trojan and spyware outbreak. You can be free. You can migrate. Screw Microsoft. Screw Vista. Go for Open Source (or Apple :p).

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Milestones in the creation of Linux

+1960s No one can argue that with the introduction of Unix in the 1960s we would not have Linux today. It was originally developed by AT&T employees at Bell Labs

History of UNIX systems

History of UNIX systems

+1983 The GNU project was started with the purpose of creating a free UNIX style operating system consisting of free and open source software (FOSS)

+1980s BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution) was a free operating system project developed from AT&T’s 6th edition of Unix.

+1991 Linus Torvalds realized his terminal emulator based on Minix was turning into an operating system, and this was the makings of today’s Linux kernel

Linus Torvalds

Linus Torvalds

+1992 Linus suggested releasing the kernel under the GNU General Public License. He first announced this decision in the release notes of version 0.12. In the middle of December 1992 he published version 0.99 using the GNU GPL.

Linux and GNU developers worked to integrate GNU components with Linux to make a fully-functional and free operating system. Torvalds has stated, “making Linux GPL’d was definitely the best thing I ever did.”

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