Tag: filesystems

Windows XP doesn’t come with a utility that allows you to see what files/folders are taking up the most room on your hard drive.  Don’t fret: sure there are programs out there you can download and install to do the job, but did you know you don’t have to actually install any software on Windows to actually find out what’s hogging all of your disk space? Well, it’s really easy as long as you have a Linux Live CD lying around. In this tutorial, we will be using Linux Mint 12 since it’s very popular right now in the tech world it’s currently leading the pack according to Distrowatch. Baobab, more commonly known as Disk Usage Analyzer, is part of gnome-utils and it is just an awesome graphical disk usage analyzer. You’ll find it on just about all Linux distros running the GNOME desktop environment.

Linux Mint screenshotStep 1:

Fire up your Linux Live CD running a GNOME desktop environment, in this example you will see we are using Linux Mint 12. Then, navigate to: Applications | Accessories | Disk Usage Analyzer

 

Disk Usage Analyzer

 

 

Step 2:

Here you will see Disk Usage Analyzer, and since we are in a Live environment, it defaults to the Live CD environment as shown on the right. Click on the green “Scan a folder” icon.

 

Choose filesystemStep 3:

Choose your hard drive listed on the left side. It will be the item that mostly likely has a size listed in GigaBytes – In this case it’s my 39 GB Filesystem. Then click Open in the bottom-right corner. If you have multiple hard drives they will be listed here as well.

 

Windows filesystem displayedStep 4:

After the filesystem is scanned, it displays the top folders on the left in list form, also graphically on the right side, showing color-coded comparisons of each folder. You can also view it as a treemap chart if you choose.

 

 

Hopefully this tutorial will give you some ideas on how even if you don’t use Linux as your daily operating system, you can take take advantage of some of the unique capabilities you gain by at least having a little Linux at your disposal!

© 2011 Linux.Bihlman.com

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Serious computer users who care about how their computer operates know that Linux has advantages that Windows simply doesn’t. Here you’ll find a list of those benefits:

  1. Windows vs LinuxLinux is free
  2. Linux is Open Source
  3. Live CDs are available for the popular distros that allow you to try it out without affecting your computer
  4. Live CDs come with all your hardware drivers automatically, they don’t have to be searched for online
  5. Linux is there to come to the rescue when Windows breaks
  6. Linux has thousands of developers around the world that work 24/7 to keep it secure
  7. Filesystems used by Linux are superior to Windows filesystems – no more endless “defragging”
  8. Ancient computer systems can be brought back to life with a modern operating system- Linux
  9. Since Linux is inherently Free, many software developers writing programs for it won’t expect you to pay for it
  10. There are many ways to customize the most common distros that leave the freedom in your hands, not some huge corporation
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Linux Data Recovery to Undelete Accidentally Deleted Important Linux Files
By Kuldeep Kulmii

‘Undelete’ is an option to recover and restore the lost or deleted files form the computer by rewinding the operation. Without the in-built undelete feature, the retrieval of lost or deleted files is termed as data recovery and in Linux operating system based computers, it is popularly known as Linux data recovery.

There are many file systems, which have the built-in undelete feature to reverse an accidental-delete operation of important data. However, this feature is not available with every file system. Moreover, though the undelete feature is very much useful for the ones who have deleted some important files/folders and at the very next moment, realize that the data was extremely important to be recovered back, the feature also alarms for a security risk.

Many operating systems with graphical user interface has a concept of ‘holding area’. If a file or folder has been deleted, then the information regarding these files move to the ‘holding area’ and are periodically deleted. In case of Windows and Macintosh operating systems, similar concept exists in the form of ‘Trash’. Though some of the recent Linux versions also have the undelete feature, still most of the command based operating systems, such as DOS, Linux and UNIX does not support undelete and leave the recovery of data unto recovery utilities, such as Linux recovery.

Some Linux file systems like ext2 has an in-built recovery feature called ‘e2undel’ which can undelete many recently deleted data from the ext2 file system based Linux computers. Similarly, in case of ext3 file system in Linux, though the ‘ext3grep’ utility has been designed to automate the undelete kind of operation, officially, ext3 does not support undelete. Apart from these two file systems, all the others file systems in Linux, such as ext4, reiserFS etc. does not have any undelete feature.

Hence, if you encounter any instance of data deletion in Linux, you need to opt for any data recovery Linux utility, such as ext2 recovery, ext3 recovery or ext4 recovery.

These Linux Undelete Tools are designed with powerful scanning algorithms to search your storage device extensively and recover the lost or deleted data efficiently. Moreover, these utilities are absolutely risk-free and do not harm neither the media nor the data in it.

Stellar Phoenix Linux Data Recovery is an innovative Linux recovery software to recover back any of your lost, deleted or even formatted data from any ext2, ext3, ext4 or ReiserFS file system based volume. The software is capable of recovering your valuable data from almost all instances of data loss and with rich interactive graphical user interface, is very easy-to-use even on the parts of novice users.

Kuldeep a techno geek is a technical writer doing research on different file system in linux like Ext2, Ext3. And Ext4. He is also interested in linux data recovery And Ext3 recovery. He is currently working with cool people.

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How to Perform Linux Data Recovery

By Kuldeep Kulmii

Linux is the UNIX like operating system that uses the Linux kernel of Monolithic type. The OS is being installed on a vast range of tablet computers, mobiles, video game consoles, mainframes, super computers etc. Even, statistics says that as, server OS, Linux accounts more than 50% of the whole global installations. Also,over the years, Linux operating system has gained fair amount of popularity among the common home users with the Fedora, Ubuntu and OpenSUSE distributions. Moreover, with the egression of smart phones, netbooks etc, which are running on embedded Linux, the operating system has been more closely used by many users. Though Linux has advanced technology and features, sometimes, some errors lead to data loss or inaccessibility and you need to look for any Linux data recovery software to recover back your valuable data.

In day to day usage of a Linux system, there can be enormous possibility of data loss situations, and you may not always successful in trouble shooting the system to gain access of your data. Hence, if you don’t have a valid backup available or failed to restore the data from the backup, Linux recovery is the answer to bring back your data.

Common data loss situations in Linux:

Error – Mount wrong fs type, bad option, bad super block on /dev/hdb2.

Error – Too many mounted file systems.

File system error.

Grub Error 12 – Invalid device requested.

Grub Error 17 – Can not mount selected partition.

There can be many such errors leading to the loss or inaccessibility of your Linux data. In such cases, if you are a technical person, then you can trouble shoot at the low-level. You can run the ‘fsck’ command to detect and fix such error. Prior to running the ‘fsck’ command, first, you need to go to the single user mode. Then, you have to unmount the file system partition, you are going to work upon, if it is not the root file system. If you don’t take enough care to unmount the file system, the ‘fsck warns you, such as- ‘The file system is mounted, do you want to continue anyway?’ Saying yes to the message, may result in the loss of your data, because, at times, ‘fsck’ writes directly to the disk.

If you need to check the root file system based partition, you have to boot the system in single user mode and run the ‘fsck’ with a ‘-b’ option so that it will run in a read-only mode. Also, the ‘-b’ option directly go to the ‘init’ and makes an emergency booting while skipping the other start-up scripts.

Sometimes, ‘fsck’ fails to run or exits without running at all. At that time, you need to force run the utility with ‘-f’ option. This is a case of severe corruption and you need to give additional information to ‘fsck’, such as the size of the alternate superblock or the address of the superblock to fetch the data and fix the error.

However, sometimes, these low-level recovery process is tedious as well as risky with respect to your valuable data. Hence, you can go for any Linux data recovery software, which can recover the data for you safely.

Stellar Phoenix Linux Data Recovery is a risk free Linux recovery utility to recover your lost, deleted, formatted or inaccessible data from ext2, ext4, ext3, FAT and NTFS file system based volumes. Moreover, with step-wise-instructions based GUI, the software can be easily used by any user without much technical knowledge.

Kuldeep a techno geek is a technical writer doing research on different file system in linux like Ext2, Ext3. And Ext4. He is also interested in linux data recovery, Linux Partition Recovery And Linux file recovery. He is currently working with http://www.data-recovery-linux.com

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How to Solve Zero Length File Problem in Linux’s Ext4 File System

By Tom Patrick

The ext4 (fourth extended) is a journaled file system of Linux that has many benefits compared to its predecessors, such as support for backward compatibility, large file system, delayed allocation, etc. However, the delayed allocation feature sometimes poses problems for the Linux system. The Linux system based on ext4 file system may encounter inconsistencies in the files in case of a power surge. To overcome this behavior, you should take appropriate corrective measures. However, if no method employed by you is successful then you should use a third-party Linux recovery software to do the needful.

Consider a scenario wherein you are working on a Linux system. Suddenly, there is a power loss and the system shuts down abruptly. When the power is restored, you switch on the system and find that the files that you created just before the crash are showing zero bytes.

Cause:

The most possible cause for such behavior is the delayed allocation feature. What happens is when a file is closed after creation, the data blocks are allocated for the file after a minute or so. Because of this, the metadata of the modified file will show zero bytes as its size. The data allocation is done after the delayed allocation is over. Hence, in the case of a power surge the new file is considered as an empty file.

Resolution:

To resolve the issue, you can use the following methods:

Mounting the file system using “data write-back”

Using three patches designed for ext4 file system: The three patches (bf1b69c0, f32b730a, and 8411e347) enforce any file with delayed allocation will be allocated immediately when a file is created.

Mount the ext4 file system with the nodealloc mount option

Mount the system with the data=alloc-on-commit option: This would ensure that all blocks that had delayed allocation would be allocated and moved to disk before a commit takes place.

However, if you still are not able to recover the lost files then you should use a third-party Linux recovery software to perform data recovery for Linux system. Such read-only tools are able to recover lost data without overwriting the original data.

Tom Patrick is a magazine editor currently researching on linux recovery

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Fixing “Mounting Unchecked Fs” Linux Boot Error

By Allen Sood

Like every other operating system, Linux computer also contains a system or boot volume, which is used to boot your system. Boot device is one on which all the boot files and Linux operating system are installed. In some cases, you may encounter boot errors while trying to start Linux-based computer. This behavior may occur due to missing or damaged boot files. In such cases, Linux system refuses to boot and you can not access the data stored on your Linux hard drive. It leads to critical data loss and needs Linux Data Recovery.

When you try to boot your Linux computer, you may receive the following warning message:

“EXT2-fs warning: mounting unchecked fs, running e2fsck is recommended”

After the above error, when you run ‘e2fsck’ utility, you face further error messages that resemble the followings:

• TivoMaster:/var/tmp$ e2fsck -y /dev/hda7 e2fsck 1.06, 7-Oct-96 for EXT2 FS 0.5b, 95/08/09 e2fsck: Bad magic number in super-block while trying to open /dev/hda7

• The superblock could not be read or does not describe a correct ext2 filesystem. If the device is valid and it really contains an ext2 filesystem (and not swap or ufs or something else), then the superblock is corrupt, and you might try running e2fsck with an alternate superblock:

e2fsck -b 8193

This behavior of Linux operating system renders all your data inaccessible. In order to access your valuable data, you need to identify the cause of this problem and perform Data Recovery Linux by resolving the problem.

Root of the problem

This problem may occur after improper system shutdown without unmounting the root file system. After this, the root file system may get damaged and you will face the above stated problem.

Resolution

You can sort out this problem by formatting the hard drive and reinstalling Linux operating system. After formatting, you need to restore data from the current backup as it removes all the data from hard drive. However, if the backup is not available, Linux Recovery becomes essential.

Recovery is possible using advanced tools, known as Linux Data Recovery software. These software are designed to scan damaged hard drive using powerful algorithms and extract data that can not be accessed normally. They perform absolute recovery in a safe and easy way.

Stellar Phoenix Linux Data Recovery is the most effective tool that insures perfect recovery in all cases of data loss. The software is developed to recover data from Ext4, Ext2, Ext2, FAT32, FAT16, and FAT12 file system volumes. It works well with all major distributions of Linux operating system, include Debian, Mandriva, SUSE, Red Hat, Fedora, and Ubuntu.

Allen a student of Mass Communication doing research on Linux recovery, Linux Data Recovery software And Ext3 Recovery.

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Ext3 File System Journaling in Linux

By Allen Sood

Ext3 or Third Extended is a reliable and popular file system for Linux OS. It supports advanced concept of file system journaling to protect your system against unexpected shutdown, crash, and power outages like situations. It reduces the need of system repairs, and possibilities of data loss. Thus you do not need to use Linux recovery methods to overcome any sort of problem.

Levels of Journaling in the Ext3:

• Journal- Both file contents and metadata are written to journal before they are being committed to file system. It improves system performance as it is comparatively uninterrupted on the hard drive.

• Ordered- Only the metadata is journaled; the file contents aren’t journaled. However, it guarantees that the file information is written to hard drive before the associated metadata is labeled as committed in journal.

• Writeback- Only the metadata is journaled and contents may be written on the disk after or before the file system journal is updated. In this case the files, altered just before a system crash, may get damaged.

Although, journaling is a useful feature of Ext3, but it also has some disadvantages, such as:

• Functionality- Since the Ext3 directs to be backward compatible with Ext2, several on-disk data structures are similar to those of the Ext2. Thus, Ext3 lacks numerous features of latest designs, like dynamic inode allocation, extents, and block sub-allocation.

• Defragmentation- Ext3 does not include any online defragmentation tool, which can work on file system level. High fragmentation on Ext3 volume may affect the system performance.

• Recovery- Ext3 does not support recovery of deleted files in file system design. The Ext3 driver actively removes files by wiping the file inodes for system crash safety reasons.

• No Checksumming in the Journal- Ext3 doesn’t do checksumming while writing data to journal. If the ‘barrier=1? isn’t enabled as mount option, and hardware failure occurs, you run the risk of serious file system damage during crash.

File system corruption eventually leads to a data loss situation and you need Linux data recovery to get out of it. Linux data Recovery is best possible using third-party recovery applications.

The Ext3 Recovery software employs high-end scanning algorithms to extract all lost, missing, and inaccessible data from your Linux hard drive. The software enables safe, quick, easy, and perfect recovery in all cases of data loss.

Stellar Phoenix Linux Data Recovery software successfully recovers lost files, directories, and hard drive volumes. The software supports recovery from Ext4, Ext3, Ext2, FAT32, FAT16, and FAT12 volumes. It works well with all popular Linux distributions, such as Mandriva, SUSE, Red Hat, Fedora, Debian, and Ubuntu.

Allen a student of Mass Communication doing research on Ext2 Recovery, Linux Data Recovery software And Ext3 Recovery. HE is also a freelancer for ext3-file-recovery.data-recovery-linux.com/

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Understanding Linux Filesystems & Linux Filesystem Types – Linux System Admin Training – Run Ubuntu
By Clyde E. Boom

The Default Linux File Systems (Filesystems)

The default filesystems that are recognized by Linux are specified in the text file named filesystems in the /proc directory.

Four of the filesystems that are commonly found on a Linux system are: ext2 (old and less common), ext3 (very common), iso9660 and swap.

Some Linux distributions also use other filesystems.

For example, instead of the ext3 filesystem, the SUSE and openSUSE distributions use the reiserfs filesystem by default.

In addition to the above filesystems, by default Linux can also recognize a partition that is a “swap” partition.

Depending on the documentation that you are reading and the command or utility that you are using, “swap” is not typically considered to be a filesystem type. It is a type of partition that is treated by the OS as virtual memory (where hard disk storage space works as though it is RAM memory).

The following is a description of some of the commonly used Linux filesystems.

ext2 (second extended filesystem) supports UNIX/Linux files and directories and allows for long file names (up to 255 characters).

ext3 (third extended filesystem) is the current default filesystem for Red Hat, Fedora and many other Linux distributions. The ext3 filesystem is on the way to becoming the de facto standard for Linux.

ext3 is based on the previous ext2 filesystem. It is basically the same as ext2, with the main difference being that ext3 supports a feature called “journalling”. The greatest benefit of this feature is that it provides a quicker recovery when a filesystem “crash” occurs and a system goes “down” (and stops working).

If files are corrupted on a partition using ext2, then the Linux fsck (filesystem check) utility is run to check the filesystem and repair it and this can take a very long time.

When the files on an ext3 filesystem become corrupted, then the fsck utility is still run to check and repair the filesystem, but this takes much less time due to the journalling feature of ext3.

vfat is the Linux filesystem that is compatible with DOS file names and Windows long file names. In some Linux utilities, “vfat” appears as “fat” or “fat32″.

iso9660 is the filesystem used on a CD-ROM.

swap (a.k.a. Linux swap partition, swap drive, swap space) is a disk partition that is used by the Linux OS as “virtual memory”. Linux uses the disk space that you have specified for the swap drive as though it were RAM (memory chips in your system).

The Linux filesystem type concepts and definitions covered here apply to: Ubuntu, Debian, Red Hat, Fedora, SUSE, Slackware, openSUSE – and ALL other Linux distributions.

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