Tag: chmod

Best Beginners Linux Commands

By Dennis Frank Parker

There are many common Linux commands that will be to your benefit, if you ever even use your command line software in Linux. Many average users just use the graphical user interface instead which usually provides many tools and front-ends to Linux common commands. This Linux system tutorial on control commands will help the average user in the event X server accidents, fails, is not properly designed, etc. So stay with me for some of the more prevalent Linux bash instructions.

Some of the more Best free Linux tutorials. A Linux system Unix shell commands tend to be listed below for more information on each command you can always manage man [command] and this will bring up the manage for that command, you can also click on the requires listed for some frequent examples and format.

First before I list them virtually any syntax in [] will be needing some kind of input of your stuff normally, for example:

guy [command] you will want to actually change [command] with the shell order you want to read the guy page for: gentleman ls will give you the man page for the Linux covering command ls.

    • linux ls command – is used to list files on the filesystem.


    • File – command that will check the filetype, this will output to you what the file type is no matter what the extension is.


    • Mkdir command – used to make directories on the filesystem.


    • cd- is used for changing into a different directory in the Linux shell


    • cp – is the Linux copy command, this shell command is used to copy files|directories from one location on the filesystem to another.


    • Mv – the Linux terminal command to move files|directories. Like the cp command, but deletes the original source.


    • rm- shell command in Linux to remove files|directories.


    • Linux cat command- this command is used to print|view the contents of a file to the screen|terminal.


    • Grep – command used to search|find contents of a file and print|view on your terminal|screen.


    • Linux more and less – commands that will allow you to read output of files, unlike cat that will output the entire file at once, even if it is too large for your terminal more and less will output only as many lines as the shell you are in can output, and allow you to scroll through the file contents.


    • Chown – Linux command to change ownership of a file|directory.


    • Linux chmod – command that allows you to change mode of user access|permissions, basically set read, write, and execute permissions.


    • Linux ps – lists the current running processes on your Linux system


  • Linux kill and killall commands – used to kill|terminate running processes

We Provide Best free Linux tutorials and Cbt nuggets training.

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The Complete Steps to Create and Run a Linux Script to Run Linux Commands
By Clyde E. Boom

Creating and running a Linux script to automatically run a series of Linux commands that you commonly run is easy!

With a Linux script, you put a series of routinely run commands in a text file, and then run all of them by simply typing in the name of the file and pressing Enter.

Linux Script Example to Create a Script to Automatically Run A Series of Linux System Administration Commands2455513753_282aa586b7

Follow along with the steps in the example below to create and run your first Linux script!

1. Run a Linux text editor.

2. Put the following text at the top left of the text file (indented below for emphasis):


This indicates that the text file is a Linux script file.

Press Enter twice to have a blank line below the line above.

3. Put the Linux command(s) in the script file.

The Linux commands below are used to provide an example. You can put any commands in a script.

The Linux commands below will: clear the screen, change into the /etc directory path, and then show the current path with the Linux pwd (path to working directory) command.

Then provide a long list of the fstab file (to show you that it’s there) and then change into your home directory (represented by the ~ symbol) and then show the path of the current directory.

The Linux echo command is not required, but has been put in the file to show the progress of the execution of the script.

Also, you don’t need to indent the commands below in the Linux script – they are just indented here for emphasis.

echo The screen has been cleared

cd /etc


echo This is the etc directory

ls -l fstab

echo This is a long listing of the fstab file

cd ~

pwd echo Now in my home directory

Linux Commands Training Tips: A Linux script can contain hundreds of lines of text if necessary – and also include complex programming logic, such as if . . . then statements.

4. Save the text / script file with a meaningful name to create it and by give it a name.

For example, if you want to list files in a few directories, call the file: listdirs

5. Run the Linux chmod command to change the permissions of the file and make the Linux text file “executable”.

In our example, the file is named: listdirs

Below is a Linux chmod command example for running the chmod command to change the permissions of the Linux script file – and to make the listdirs text / script file “executable”, so that you can run the script file in the same way as you run a command.

The $ (dollar sign) below is the Linux command line prompt. Don’t type in the $ (dolar sign), type in the command that appears at the right of the $ prompt.

$ chmod u+x listdirs

The Linux command above is chmod and it is being used to assign the x (executable) permission to the u (user) of the file with: u+x and the script file name is listdirs.

Running a Linux Script to Run System Administration Commands

To run a Linux script (that is in the “current” directory), such as the listdirs script, simply type in a period (dot) and a space and then the name of the file and press Enter.

$ . listdirs

The concepts and Linux command examples shown above work in Red Hat, Ubuntu, Fedora, Slackware, and Debian Linux – and also ALL Linux distributions.

By the way…do you want to learn exactly how to use Linux and run Linux commands for Linux System Administration and get real, practical Linux training experience by running hundreds of examples of Linux commands?

Just click to download my free new Linux commands training course book and Linux audio podcast (.mp3) files here: Linux Commands Training Mini-Course

Clyde Boom says “Learn how to use Linux commands with easy, self-paced Linux training materials that show you how to run hundreds of examples of the essential Linux System Administration commands – and get that new and better job, promotion, raise – or keep your current job!”

You can get your instant access to my free Linux commands training course at:

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