5 Useful Unix DD Command Examples

By Erik Schweigert

dd is a common Unix program whose primary purpose is the low-level copying and conversion of raw data. You can backup whole hard drives, create a large file filled with only zeros, create and modify image files at specific points, and even do conversions to upper case.

To display dd‘s help simply enter:dd command unix linux

$dd –help

Alright, lets get to the juicy stuff.

1. Make an ISO of a your favourite CD just for backing up purposes with dd:

dd if=/dev/cdrom of=/home/erik/myCD.iso bs=2048 conv=sync

Breaking down the commands:

  • if is “input file”, so in this case our cdrom drive at /dev/cdrom
  • of is “output file”, in this case myCD.iso
  • bs is “block size”, in this case 2048 bytes per block
  • conv is for conversion, in this case we are using “sync” which tells DD to execute synchronized input and output, this is needed for the CD-ROM as we want to read a whole block to ensure no data loss occurs.

2. Duplicate one hard disk partition to another hard disk with dd:

dd if=/dev/sda1 of=/dev/sdb1 bs=4096 conv=noerror

In this case everything is the same as example 1 but our conversion methods states that noerror should be executed, this tells DD to continue after read errors.

3. Fill a file with 1MB of random bytes with dd:

erik@debian:~$dd if=/dev/urandom bs=1024 count=1000 of=fun.bin

1000+0 records in

1000+0 records out

1024000 bytes (1.0 MB) copied, 0.198349 s, 5.2 MB/s

This time I stated that our block size is 1024 bytes, and we are going to make 1000 of them sequentially. I also used the built-in kernel device urandom which provides random bytes.

4. Skip first 128K of input file then write remaining with dd:

dd if=/home/erik/fun.bin skip=128k bs=1 of=/home/erik/fun2.bin

The skip command tells DD to move passed the (in this case) 128k of data infun.bin then write the rest to fun2.bin. This can be handy if you have a large file that needs to be written across more than one partition. For instance, if you had 3 partitions each 128k. You wouldn’t want to write the same 128k to each partition, you would want to write the first 128k to partition 1, then from 128k-256k of the file to partition 2 and so on.

5. Using dd to convert a file to uppercase:

dd if=erik.txt of=erik_up.txt conv=ucase

Finally, we use conv again to do a conversion. In this case we convert with the specifier of ucase.

What is your favourite use of dd?

Erik is an avid Linux user and has experience with a wide variety of Linux/Unix based systems. In his spare time he likes writing software (C/C++/Perl/PHP/BASH/Python) and experimenting with different Linux distributions. He is starting to build a wide variety of articles Unix driven (what a surprise) that hope to inform those just getting into Linux on his website.